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CBSE Class 10 - Social Science - Geography NCERT Notes

Resources and Development

The chapter introduces students to various classification of resources and highlights sustainable development. We also learn specially about land and soil resources in India and their characteristics and uses.


The chapter introduces to the agrarian economy of India by discussing various types of agriculture and associated seasons. We also learn about various types of crops that are grown in India along with their seasons and areas. Towards the end we learn about various reforms in the Indian agriculture and the issue of food security in India

Manufacturing Industries

The chapter discusses how the location of an industry is determined by multitude of factors. We also learn about classification of industries based on various factors. We also learn about some important industries in India, their key characteristics and locations. Towards the end we discuss the issue of industrial pollution and how to keep it in control.

Water Resources

The chapter discusses efficient utilisation of water as a resource, the pros and cons of multi-purpose projects, important dams of India and various water conservation techniques that have been used in various parts of the country.

Mineral and Energy Resources

The chapter introduces students to formation and occurrence of minerals and specially highlights various types of mineral found in India. We learn about various uses of minerals found in India along with areas they are found in. We also discuss the conservation of mineral resources and alternate resources of energy to meet the demands of Indian economy.

Lifelines of Indian Economy

The chapter introduces students to various infrastructure types such as roadways, railways, waterways, ports, airports and communication. We also learn about developments specific to infrastructure areas and discuss international trade and tourism's role in a country's development.

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