CBSE Notes | Class 10 | Social Science | Political Science Chapter 7 - Challenges to Democracy
The chapter discusses the challenges faced by a democracy in its expansion, deepening along with fundamental issues. We also learn methods of political reform that can enhance a democracy.
3 Challenges to Democracy
What is a Challenge?
A challenge is a difficulty that carries within it an opportunity for progress.
The following are the primary issues and challenges confronting a democracy:
1. Foundational Challenges
It is concerned with the process of transitioning to democracy and subsequently establishing democratic government. It entails overthrowing the incumbent undemocratic dictatorship, separating the military from government control, and establishing a sovereign and functional state.
2. Challenge of Expansion
It entails adopting the fundamental idea of democratic governance across all geographies, social groupings, and institutions. It involves granting greater authority to local governments, extending the federal principle to all federation units, and assuring the inclusion of women and minority groups, among other things. The majority of established democracies, for example, India and the United States, face the difficulty of expansion.
3. Challenge of Deepening of Democracy
One of democracy's key challenges is its strength. Nations that operate under a democratic framework must strengthen democracy's grasp. This requires building people's faith in democracy by ensuring that its institutions operate efficiently and seamlessly.
Challenges for Non-Democratic Governments
Challenges confronting countries that lack a democratic system of administration include the following:
These countries are confronted with the foundational problem of making the transition to democracy and subsequently establishing democratic administration in their respective countries.
They also have the problem of bringing down the incumbent non-democratic rule while also preventing the military from exerting influence over the country's administration.
Such countries must put in significant effort in order to establish a sovereign and functioning state.
Guidelines for Political Reforms
A challenge gives a chance for growth and development. It provides an opportunity to make changes and advance further. A difficulty can only be overcome by reforms and amendments to the existing system of governance.
Political reforms are essential for addressing the concerns that are eating away at the foundations of a democratic environment. However, the breadth and nature of reform vary from country to country, based on the specific diseases that each is experiencing.
When it comes to reforming India, there is both a pressing need and room for improvement. For India's political system, we can outline the following reforms in response to the most significant obstacles to democracy:
Making laws is not the only method of bringing about change : The over-reliance on the law, which is a flaw in the Indian system, is a source of contention. When individuals talk about political reform, they frequently refer to the legislative branch of government. This, on the other hand, is not entirely reasonable. Laws are the only conventions that may be used to regulate a society. They will not be able to change people's corrupt mentalities.
Good legislation, without a doubt, contributes to the prevention of unethical political actions. Good laws, on their own, are insufficient.
Legal change should not be counterproductive : Any attempt at reform must be constructed with the wellbeing of the people at its core if it is to be successful. The regulation prohibiting anyone with more than two children from vying for election to the panchayat is counter-productive in the long run. While attempting to reduce overpopulation, it also denies many people the ability to express their views and opinions in a democratic manner.
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Need for strong political parties : In order to strengthen democratic practises, reforms should be centred on these activities. They should concentrate on how democratic governments ensure transparency in their operations. A democratic framework can achieve greater heights if people are actively involved in its development. Ordinary citizens should be empowered as a result of political practises.
What, Who and How? : A solution for political reform will be insufficient unless some pertinent questions are clearly identified and defined. Any political reform should consider the most appropriate solution, the most appropriate authority to carry out the reform, and the most appropriate strategy to carry out the reform. Apart from that, these remedies should not be limited to merely transferring all control to political leaders.
People are at the forefront of reform. As a result, it is critical to stimulate the engagement of the general public in the reformation of the system.