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CBSE Notes | Class 11 | Political Theory
Chapter 9 - Peace

The chapter talks about societal friendship and harmony, and all the factors that trigger violence and disturbs the peace. The chapter introduces the students to the various form of violence and analyses all the approaches in the pursuit of peace. We also highlight various contemporary challenges.

Introduction To Peace


The concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of hostility and violence is called Peace. In a social sense, peace is commonly used to mean a lack of conflict (such as war) and freedom from fear of violence between individuals or groups.


The second step in defining peace would be to see it as the absence of violent conflict of all kinds including war, riot, massacre, assassination, or simply physical attack.

There are times peace is praised today but that is not merely because people believe in it, but it is because humanity had paid a huge cost for its absence.


Example: The post-war decades were marked by intense rivalry between two superpowers–the capitalist USA and the communist USSR—for world supremacy.

The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 was a particularly dark episode in this unfolding military competition. Many other instances like when Germany Carpet bombed London during the Second World War and the nuclear attack on the cities of Hiroshima & Nagasaki by the USA.


How was Friedrich Nietzsche’s description of peace different?



The nineteenth-century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was one of those who glorified war. Nietzsche did not value peace because he believed that only conflict could facilitate the growth of civilisation.

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Structural Violence


Caste System


The traditional caste system in India treated certain groups as aspirshya or untouchable. Earlier, the Indian constitution outlawed the practice of untouchability and this caste system.

The Ground reality is that the country is still struggling to erase the scars and relics of this ugly custom. While a social order based on class appears to be more flexible, it too generates a great deal of inequality and oppression.


Patriarchy


Patriarchy entails a form of social organisation that results in the systematic subordination of, and discrimination against, women.

Its manifestations include selective abortion of female foetuses, denial of adequate nourishment and education to the girl-child, child marriage, wife battering, dowry-related crimes, sexual harassment at the workplace, rape, and honour killing.

The low child sex ratio (0-6 years) — 919 females per 1000 males — in India, as per the 2011 Census, is a poignant index of the ravages of patriarchy.


Racism and Communalism



Colonialism in the sense of prolonged and direct subjection of a people to alien rule is now a rare phenomenon. But it has not disappeared completely.

Racism and communalism involve the stigmatisation and oppression of an entire racial group or community. Apartheid—a policy followed until 1992 by the White-controlled government in South Africa, which treated the majority Black people of the country as second-class citizens.

Racial discrimination still continues covertly in the West and is now often directed against immigrants from countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Communalism may be seen as the South Asian counterpart of racism where the victims tend to be minority religious groups.