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CBSE Notes | Class 9 | Social Science | Political Science
Chapter 4 - Working of Institutions

The chapter notes provide an overview of the functioning of the democratic institutions that are critical in making crucial choices, including the legislature, executive, and judiciary. It discusses why rulers must adhere to certain laws and processes with and within institutions in order to manage a democratic government, as well as how significant decisions are made and implemented in India.

Additionally, we shall discuss the functions of these institutions. What ties these institutions together? What factors contribute to their more or less democratic functioning?

Which institutions play a key role in major decision making? 


Decision making in a democracy is often balanced between the 3 branches, namely – legislature, executive and judiciary. Each of them have their functions and domains and also keep a check on each other. 


How a major policy decision taken?


A Government Order


An office memorandum was issues by the government of India on ‘August 13, 1990’. Having a serial number: O. M. No. 36012/31/90-Est (SCT)


The Joint Secretary signed the order who was an officer in the Department of Personnel and Training in the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions.

As hundreds of orders are issued on the daily basis but this memorandum became the source of controversy. It announced a major policy decision stating that 27 per cent of the vacancies in civil posts and services under the Government of India are reserved for the 


Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (SEBC).


What was SEBC all about?


SEBC is another name for all those people who belong to castes that are considered backward by the government. The benefit of job reservation was available only to Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes, until SEBC was introduced.

The reservation mark was about 27 percent of the jobs that were reserved for the persons belonging to the backward classes.


The Decision Makers


Who decides to issue any Memorandum?


The authority lies in the hands of the ministers of the concerned department, the lower officials merely implement the instructions. The highest authority resides within the powers of the President and the Prime minister.

As the President is the head of the state and is the highest formal authority in the country. The Prime Minister is the head of the government and actually exercises all governmental powers. He takes most of the decisions in the Cabinet meetings.

The Parliament comprises of the President and two Houses, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.



Mandal Commission 


The Government of India had appointed the Second Backward Classes Commission in 1979 known as Mandal Comm