Bioethics is concerned with the ethical dilemmas produced by biology and medicine, particularly those raised by human action in society and the environment through the use of biotechnology. Bioethics examines concerns impacting all living organisms and the environment, from the level of the individual creature to the biosphere in complexity. It is the branch of ethics concerned with the examination of specific, contentious moral issues such as abortion, animal rights, and euthanasia. It helps to use knowledge of moral principles to present dilemmas.
When assessing the benefits and problems of medical operations, bioethicists frequently resort to the four main principles of health care ethics.
To be called "ethical," a medical practice should adhere to all four of these principles:
When making decisions about health care procedures, the patient must have autonomy of thought, purpose, and action. As a result, the decision-making process must be free of coercion or persuasion. For a patient to make an informed decision, she or he must be aware of all risks and benefits of the procedure, as well as the possibility of success.
The belief is that the costs and benefits of innovative or experimental treatments must be shared equally by all members of society. Procedures must adhere to the spirit of existing laws and be equitable to all parties concerned. When analyzing justice, the health care practitioner must analyze four major areas: equitable distribution of restricted resources, conflicting needs, rights and obligations, and potential conflicts with established legislation.
The procedure must be performed to benefit the patient. Demands that health care providers grow and retain skills and expertise, update training regularly, take into account the particular circumstances of all patients, and strive for net benefit.
The ability to avoid creating damage. The healthcare professional should not inflict any harm on the patient. All treatments cause some harm, even if it is minor, but the harm must not be disproportionate to the benefits of the treatment.
Issues related to Bioethics in India
Euthanasia/"mercy killing" of terminally sick people has been a contentious bioethical topic in India. Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS) advocates believe that an individual's right to autonomy automatically entitles him to a painless death.
Opponents argue that a physician's role in a person's death breaches the medical profession's core concept of life versus dignity. We permit passive euthanasia but not active euthanasia.
In Hinduism, Atma-gatha, which means suicide—the purpose to kill voluntarily—was forbidden. Hindu traditions faith in the theory of karma, one's sufferings in this life is a consequence of deeds in the previous birth. So any infringement is an infringement of the law of karma and dharma. Indian Muslims oppose euthanasia as well, Muslims believe that no one has the right to die before God's appointed time.
Stem Cell Study
Stem cell research has significant potential for understanding fundamental mechanisms of human development and differentiation, as well as the possibility of new treatments for disorders. However, human stem cell research involves significant ethical and political concerns. The enormous promise of stem cells in the treatment of "degenerative, incurable, and irreversible" diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease has brought them to the forefront of research. The controversy over stem cell therapy encompasses socioeconomic, political, cultural, and ethical concerns. Problems with designer babies have created severe bio-ethical concerns.
A variety of prenatal diagnostic methods, as well as the recent introduction of preconception and genetics-based technologies, have made it possible to determine the sex or other "abnormalities" of the fetus. This has prompted women and their families to seek elective abortions, including sex-based abortions. It is the human application of technology that determines whether it is good or harmful. For example, technology made it feasible to determine the gender of a child, but for some, it was a means to an entirely different aim, leading to an increase in female foeticide.
The incredible developments in medical science and technology have had a tremendous impact on society. They have brought to the forefront concerns that are transforming human living patterns and social ideals. These difficulties push us to reconsider our conceptions of societal and medical ethics, as well as our value systems.