According to the erstwhile Planning Commission, Irrigation projects in India are classified by the amount of 'Cultivable Command Area (CCA)' they cover. If their CCA is greater than 10000 hectares, between 2000 and 10000 hectares, or less than 2000 hectares, they are classified as Major.
Minor Scope irrigation projects typically exploit both surface and groundwater sources. Surface water resources are used in the majority of large and medium-sized projects.
The distribution of water within the field varies depending on the irrigation technique. In general, a uniformly irrigated field requires neither too much nor too little water to ensure that each plant receives the proper amount of water.
Surface Irrigation: It is a term that refers to the process of irrigating the surface irrigation systems, water wets and seeps into the wild. Surface irrigation includes furrow, border strip, and basin irrigation. When irrigation is carried out in such a way that the cultivated land is flooded, it is referred to as flood irrigation.
Local Irrigation: On a Smaller Scale, Irrigation Localised irrigation is a technique that uses a piped network to distribute water under low pressure. As a discharge, each plant receives water. Drip or tickle irrigation, spray or micro-sprinkler irrigation, and bubbler irrigation are all examples of localised irrigation methods.
Drip or Trickle Irrigation: Water is delivered in the form of drops near the root zone of plants through drip irrigation or trickle irrigation. Because of the low evaporative and un-off losses, this is a very efficient irrigation mode. Drip irrigation can be used in conjunction with plastic to reduce evaporation even more. It can also be used to deliver fertiliser in a controlled fashion.
Sprinkler irrigation: It is a method of irrigating a lawn. Water is piped to central locations in the field and then distributed via overhead high-pressure sprinklers in a sprinkler or overhead irrigation system. Small farms, lawns, and pastures can all benefit from travelling sprinklers, which are self-propelled wheeled systems.
Irrigation Systems In India
In different parts of India, different types of irrigation practices are used. In India, irrigation is done through wells, tanks, canals, perennial canals, and multi-purpose river valley projects, among other things.
India's irrigation system works in the following ways:
Well Water Irrigation System
Wells are mostly found in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Tamil Nadu, among other places. Wells come in a variety of shapes and sizes, including shallow wells, deep wells, tube wells, and artesian wells.
Water is not always available from shallow wells because the level of water drops during the dry months. Deep wells are better for irrigation because their water is available all year.
Irrigation is also done through tube wells. A deep tube well irrigates a much larger area (about 400 hectares) than a surface well (1/2 hectare). Tube wells are primarily used in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Bihar, and Gujarat. Artesian wells are now supplying water to agricultural lands in Rajasthan and Maharashtra.
Tank Water Irrigation System
Dams are used to create reservoirs in the Deccan. Tamil Nadu has embraced this system to a large extent. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and other states. Tanks for water storage are also built-in in Northern India. Water is transported to the fields via canals from all of these tanks.
Inundation Irrigation System
Irrigation canals are extremely important in Indian agriculture. It runs close to 42 per cent of all irrigated land. Rivers are diverted into inundation canals. There is no weir at the head of these canals to control the flow of water from the river. The river floods during the rainy season, and the floodwater overflows into these canals.
Many of these canals can be found on the Sutlej-Ganga plains and in the Brahmaputra valley. Flood water is transported to the field via canals. These canals can be found in places like Wa Bihar, Orissa, and others.
They only provide water when rivers are flooded, so they are useless during the dry season when water is most needed.
Perennial Canals Irrigation System
Reservoirs are built to store water in order to provide water throughout the year. Water can be delivered to the fields whenever there is a need for it from these reservoirs. As a result, this irrigation system ensures water supply throughout the year. Perennial canals are mostly found in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.
The upper Bari Doab canal, which connects the Ravi and the Beas, and the Sirhind (from the Sutlej) canal, is well-known in Punjab.
The Upper and Lower Ganga canals, as well as the Agra and Sarda canals, are important in Uttar Pradesh. The Buckingham canal and the Periyar canal are the most important in Tamil Nadu.
Multi-Purpose River Valley Projects
Agriculture has benefited from multi-purpose river valley projects in recent years. The following are the most important:
West Bengal's Damodar and Mor projects are two examples.
Orissa's Mahanadi (Hirakud) Project
Bihar's Kosi Project, as well as
Punjab's Bhakra Nangal Project.
Irrigation, flood control, soil conservation, and other services are offered through these projects.