One of the main goals of the development planning process has been to eliminate poverty. The majority of the rural poor are agricultural wage earners, small and marginal farmers, and casual workers engaged in non-agricultural activities.
A large proportion of the population is forced to seek employment invocations with extremely low levels of productivity and wages due to a lack of physical and social capital. The creation of jobs for the unskilled workforce has proven to be a major challenge.
The Ministry of Rural Development (MORD) launched Aajeevika-National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) in June 2011.
The mission, which is aided in part by World Bank investment, aims to build efficient and effective institutional platforms for the rural poor, allowing them to increase household income through sustainable livelihood improvements and improved access to financial services.
In a period of 8-10 years, the NRLM plans to cover 7 crore rural poor households in 600 districts, 6000 blocks, 2.5 lakh Gram Panchayats, and 6 lakh villages across the country through self-managed Self Help Groups (SHGs) and support them for livelihood collectives. Furthermore, the poor would have easier access to their rights, entitlements, and public services, as well as diversified risk and improved social indicators of empowerment. NRLM believes in enhancing the poor's natural abilities by providing them with the resources (information, knowledge, skills, tools, finance, and collectivization) they need to participate in the country's growing economy.
SAMPOORNA GRAMEEN ROZGAR YOJANA
The government launched the Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana with the goal of providing gainful employment to the rural poor. The Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) became an allocation-based scheme on April 1, 1999. The P Panchayati Raj Institutions were in charge of implementing the programme.
In September 2001, the Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana was launched, combining the provisions of the Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) and the Jawahar Samridhi Yojana (JGSY). The programme is self-targeting in nature, with the goal of providing employment and food to people living in rural areas who are poor.
Poverty alleviation through the creation of rural jobs has a long history in India, dating back to the 1960s. The government launched major initiatives such as the Jawahar Rozgar Yojana and the Employment Guarantee Act.
The Mahatma Gandhi NREGA was preceded by the Assurance Scheme, the Food for Work Program, and the Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana. The Mahatma Gandhi NREGA, on the other hand, guaranteed employment as a legal right, unlike its predecessors.
NATIONAL SOCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME
The National Social Assistance Program (NSAP) took effect in August 1995 and is a significant step toward achieving the Directive Principles outlined in Article 41 of the Constitution. The programme established a National Policy for Poor People's Social Assistance, which aims to establish a national minimum standard for social assistance in addition to the benefits that states currently provide or may provide in the future. The five components of the NSAP are as follows:
National Old Age Pension Scheme of Indira Gandhi (IGNOAPS): It provides a pension to the elderly who are 60 years or older and live in poverty. For applicants aged 60 to 79, the old-age pension is worth $300 per month. The amount is $500 per month for applicants over the age of 80.
National Widow Pension Scheme of Indira Gandhi (IGNWPS): Widows between the ages of 40 and 59 who are living in poverty receive a monthly pension of $300.
National Disability Pension Scheme of Indira Gandhi (IGNDPS): Physically/mentally handicapped individuals aged 18-59 who are living in poverty receive a monthly pension of $300.
The National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS) provides a lump sum grant of $20,000 to a household living below the poverty line in the event of the death of the 'primary breadwinner.' The primary breadwinner, whether male or female, had to be a member of the household whose earnings contributed significantly to the total household income, as specified in the scheme.
Annapurna: The goal of this programme is to provide food security for senior citizens.
RED Citizens who have remained uninsured under the National Old Age Pension Scheme despite being eligible (NOAPS). The Annapurna Scheme provides the beneficiary with 10 kilogrammes of food grains per month at no cost.
INDIRA AWAAS YOJANA INDIRA AWAAS YOJANA INDIRA AWAAS
Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) is an Indian social welfare programme that aims to provide housing to the country's rural poor. It is one of the Rural Development Ministry's major flagship programmes to build houses for BPL people in villages.
The houses are allotted in the name of the woman or jointly between husband and wife, with the beneficiary bearing sole responsibility for the construction of the houses. Each IAY house is required to have a sanitary latrine and a smokeless chullah, for which the Total Sanitation Campaign and the Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana provide additional financial assistance.