CBSE Notes | Class 10 | Social Science | Political Science Chapter 6 - Outcomes of Democracy
The chapter evaluates democracy as a political system and contrasts between other systems of political control. We highlight the limitations and benefits of a democracy and learn how a democracy promotes equality, enhances the individual's dignity and quality of decision-making process, provides a mechanism for resolving disputes.
How Do We Evaluate the Outcomes of Democracy?
Democracy is a superior form of government to dictatorship in the following ways:
Enhances the individual's dignity.
Enhances the quality of decision-making process
Provides a mechanism for resolving disputes.
Allows for error correction.
Social Diversity Accommodation
No civilization is capable of resolving conflicts between diverse groups completely and permanently. However, we can learn to appreciate these distinctions and build systems for resolving them. Democracy is the best system for achieving this goal. The capacity of democratic regimes to deal with social diversity, splits, and disputes is a strength.
Two requirements must exist for a democracy to attain social harmony
1. Majority and minority views are not irreversible. Democracy is not only majority rule. The majority must collaborate with the minority in order for government to function as a representative body.
2. Majority rule does not equate to majority community rule in terms of religion, race, or linguistic groupings, for example. Democracy will continue to exist as long as each citizen has a chance to be in the majority at some point in time. No one should be excluded from democratic participation on the basis of religion, caste, community, creed, or other such characteristics.
Democracy results in a government that is accountable, responsive, and legitimate
The people have the right to choose and control their rulers. Citizens have the ability to participate in decision-making. Thus, democracy results in a government that is accountable to and responsive to the public' demands and expectations.
Democracy ensures that decisions are made in accordance with established standards and procedures. Thus, a citizen seeking to ascertain if a decision was made in accordance with proper procedures can do so. Citizens may participate in decision-making at any time they like.
A democratic government is one in which the people govern themselves. The people desire to be ruled by representatives they elect.
Democracy's Economic Outcomes - Economic Growth and Development
The following points illustrate the relationship between democracy and economic growth and inequality.
Economic growth has historically been marginally better under dictatorial regimes. However, when their track records are compared solely in poor countries, there is virtually no difference.
Within democracies, there can be a great degree of inequality.
Often, the chances accessible to the poorer portions of society are unequal.
Economic development is contingent upon a number of factors including:
The country's population size
The global situation
International collaboration, and
The economic priorities adopted by the country
Inequality and Poverty Reduction
Individuals have equal clout when it comes to electing legislators. We see growing economic inequities as a result of the process of bringing individuals into the political arena on an equal footing.
A tiny group of ultra-wealthy individuals own a disproportionate percentage of wealth and income. Their share of the country's total income has been increasing.
Those at the bottom of society have very few resources. Their earnings have been dwindling. In practise, democracies do not appear to be particularly effective in reducing economic inequality.
Citizens' Dignity and Freedom
Democracy is far superior to any other form of government in terms of fostering the individual's dignity and freedom.
The only way to ensure that women's issues receive appropriate attention is to elect more women to office. To accomplish this, it is legally required that elected entities have a proportionate representation of women. In India, the Panchayati Raj system reserves one-third of the seats in local government organisations for women. In March 2010, the Rajya Sabha enacted the Women's Reservation Bill, guaranteeing women 33% representation in Parliament and state legislative bodies.
Women's lengthy battles have heightened awareness that women's equality and respect are vital components of a democratic society.
Inclusion of Marginalised Castes
Democracies have bolstered the demands of historically marginalised and discriminatory castes. When governments are created, political parties typically ensure that members of various castes and tribes are included. Certain political parties have a history of favouring certain castes. Democracy ensures that all castes have equal position and opportunity.
Elevates people from being subject to citizens
Democracy elevates individuals from the status of subjects to that of citizens. A democracy guarantees that citizens have the right to choose their rulers and that citizens retain control over their rulers.
Scutiny by Citizens
A citizen has the right and the ability to scrutinise the decision-making process. Transparency is a virtue in a democracy like India. In October 2005, the Right to Information (RTI) law was enacted, ensuring that all citizens have the right to obtain all information pertaining to the functioning of government agencies.
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Outcomes of Democracy
Certain things must be provided by democracy:
1. In a democracy, citizens have the right to elect their leaders and exercise influence over them. Citizens should be able to participate in decision-making that affects them all whenever possible and required.
It is reasonable to anticipate that democracy will create a government that adheres to established rules and is accountable to the people.
2. A democratic government establishes mechanisms for citizens—regular, free, and fair elections, open public debate on significant topics and laws, and citizens' access to knowledge about the government and how it operates.
Why is democracy a better form of government?
It is based on the concept of negotiation and deliberation. As a result, there is a necessary delay in implementation of decisions but the decisions are acceptable to all and are more effective.
A citizen has the right and the ability to scrutinise the decision-making process. Transparency exists in a democracy.
Democratic governance is legal and legitimate government; it is the government of the people.
Democracy has the capacity to manage disagreements, decisions, and disputes is a strength of democratic governments.
Democracies have bolstered the aspirations of marginalised and discriminated castes for equality of status and opportunity.
However, the democratic system's inability to deliver faster economic growth is cause for concern.