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CBSE Class 12 - Political Science NCERT Notes

Cold War Era

The chapter introduces students to the 'Cold War Era', it draws a major contrast between the Cuban missile crisis to the alliance politics at the global stage. It also highlights the arenas of the cold war and other proxy wars that happened. The chapter also analyses the 'New International Economic Order'.

US Hegemony in World Politics

The chapter introduces students to the US Hegemony. It analyses what makes United States a super power also the cultural, economic and military aspects of the US Hegemony. We also highlights the constraints on the American Power.

Contemporary South Asia

The chapter introduces students to the geopolitics of South-Asia. It talks about all the role players in the region and their political relations with each other. We also highlight the India's relation with all the neighbour sates.

Security in the Contemporary World.

The chapter Introduces students to different notions of Security: Traditional and Non-Traditional. We also highlight cooperation among various states in arms control through various arms control treaties and the New sources of threats.


The chapter Introduces students to the political, economic and cultural consequences of globalisation. It analyses what role does it play in boosting the overall growth of the states in the global politics. We also highlight India's contribution at the global stage.

Era Of One Party Dominance

The chapter introduces students to the era of one party dominance in the Indian Politics. It also talks about the challenges of building a democracy, and how did the other opposition parties emerged in the political picture other than the Congress. We also highlight various political parties: Swatantra Party, Communist Party Of India.

India's External Relations

The chapter introduces students to the India's external relations and its foreign Policy. It also highlights the policy of Non-Alignment, the Afro-Asian Unity and the role played by India in Bangladesh War of 1971. The chapter also talks about the Chinese invasion and the Indo-Pakistan war.

The Crisis of Democratic Order

The chapter Introduces students to the time when Indian Politics witnessed to a rift between the Indra Gandhi and the other prominent leaders. We also highlight the most iconic era of the Indian Politics, the Emergency Era. The chapter analyses the consequences and the causes of the emergency.

Regional Aspirations

The chapter introduces students to the various political aspiration of the regions in the Indian Sub Continent. The chapter talks about nation building, and the regional autonomy that the regions demanded. We also highlight various accord that took place: Punjab, North-East etc.

The End Of Bipolarity

The chapter introduces students to the soviet system and the disintegration of USSR. It also highlights the eastern and western alliance: Warsaw And NATO. The chapter also describes the shock therapy and its consequences.

Alternative Centres Of Power

The chapter introduces students to the different political structures: The European Union (EU) and the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN). We also highlights the EU's influence in various aspects and the rise of Chinese economy.

International Organisations

The chapter introduces students to the major political International Organisations and the role they play in the International Politics. We also highlight the various structures of United Nations and the the formation of League of Nations, IMF, World Bank, IAEA etc.

Environment And Natural Resources

The Chapter Introduces student Environmental Concerns In Global Politics. It also highlights the common Property resources and the rights of the indigenous people. The chapter also mentions the global commons and their relevance in the contemporary world politics.

Challenges of Nation Building

The chapter introduces students to the challenges faced by the Independent India. It outlines all the challenges of nation building. The chapter also highlights the problem and the demands of the princely states that they made before signing the instrument of accession.

Politics Of Planned Development

The chapter Introduces students to the development that took place in structuring the Indian Politics. It talks about the planned development and the establishment of Planning Commission. The chapter explains the five year plans and the 'Green Revolution'.

Challenges To And the Restoration of The Congress System

The Chapter introduces student to the challenges that came across in the restoration of the Congress system in the Indian politics. It describes the multi dimensional political phase after Nehru. We also highlight the various general elections and the presidential elections and other interesting developments.

Rise of Popular Movements

The Chapter introduces students to the various movements: Party Based & Non- Party Based. We also highlight various movements like Anti-Arrack, Bhartiya Kisan Union and their consequences.

Recent Developments In Indian Politics

The chapter introduces students to the major political developments happened in Indian Politics. It highlights the political dimensions that changed after the prime minister Indra Gandhi. The chapter outlines the Alliance politics and the Congress system.

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