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CBSE Class 11 - Political Science NCERT Notes

Political Theory - An Introduction

The chapter introduces students to the theory of political science. The chapter also examines different aspects of the political nature of the country and human beings. We also highlight the different political theories given by the great philosophers and the relevance of the theories in modern times.


This chapter introduces students to the world of equality, where it examines various dimensions and the significance of equality. It also teaches that how can one be a promoter of equality by providing in-depth knowledge about various types of equality. We also highlight different political philosophies like feminism, marxism, socialism & liberalism.


The chapter introduces students to various types of Rights and explains why they are essential. Here, we highlight political, cultural and economic rights. This chapter also explains the Fundamental nature of rights along with the responsibilities that come up along with them.


This chapter introduces students to the idea of nationalism and the effects of nationalism. It also examines the concept of national self-determination and common political identity. We also highlight the merits and demerits of nationalism and the distinction between a nation and a state.


The chapter talks about societal friendship and harmony, and all the factors that trigger violence and disturbs the peace. The chapter introduces the students to the various form of violence and analyses all the approaches in the pursuit of peace. We also highlight various contemporary challenges.

Constitution Why? & How?

The chapter provides students with an overview of the Indian constitution, it talks about its history, features and all the institutional arrangements done by the drafting committee. We also highlight the borrowed features and various institutional bodies that played a major role in the making of the Indian Constitution.

Election And Representation

The chapter introduces students to the interesting aspect of democracy: elections. This chapter talks about the types of elections and the methods of elections performed at various levels of democracy. The chapter also creates a distinction between the FPTP and the proportional representation system of elections. We also highlight various political bodies like the election commission, delimitation commission and in-depth discussion on the electoral reforms.

The Legislature

The chapter introduces students to the legislative aspects of democracy. It enlists various legislative functions of the two houses of the Indian parliament: Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. The chapter also highlights the debates and discussions that happen during the various hours in the parliament.


The chapter introduces the students to the federal nature of our country's mechanism. The chapter talks about federalism with the strong central government, constitution and the division of powers. We also highlight some interstates conflicts like the revocation of article 370 of Jammu & Kashmir and various river water disputes.

Constitution As A Living Document

The chapter introduces the student to the need for and the processes of amending the constitution of India. The chapter provides in-depth details about how the constitution can be changed and also about the special majority and the Parliamentary democracy. We also highlight a landmark dispute named Kesavananda Bharti Case and its outcomes.


The chapter introduces students to different aspects and dimensions of Freedom. This chapter analyses the reasons to put constraints on freedom and its value. We also highlight the concept of liberty and its positive and negative aspects. It also lists the J. S Mill harm Principle and Mahatma Gandhi's lookout on Swaraj.

Social Justice

The chapter introduces students to the concept of Social Justice, as social justice has been interpreted differently by all cultures. Here, we examine all the principles of justice with John Rawl's theory of justice. This chapter also highlights Plato's idea of justice and free markets.


This chapter introduces the political Idea of citizenship and examines the aspects of single and dual citizenships. We also highlight the concept of Global Citizenship and analyse what rights that must be granted to the citizens and the migrants.


This chapter introduces the students to the idea of secularism and its different models like the Indian and the Western models. The chapter enlists the in-depth discussion about the secular nature of the state. We also highlight Kemal Atatürk's Secularism and the role of religious dominations.


The chapter introduces the students to the models of development and also talks about all the challenges of development and the Indian development model. This chapter also tells us what cost does development takes in the terms of the environment. We also highlight human development and the alternative conceptions of development.

Rights In The Indian Constitution

The chapter provides an explanation about the rights of the Indian constitution, why they are necessary?. It also defines various types of rights like legal, fundamental and state rights. The chapter also highlights the topics about preventive detention & writ jurisdiction.

The Executive

The chapter introduces students to the different types of executives: parliamentary & bureaucratic. The chapter talks about the executives like President, vice president, ministers and bureaucrats, along with the functions they perform in a democracy like India.

The Judiciary

The chapter introduces students to the Judiciary and Parliament, the structure of the Judiciary, Judiciary and Rights and Judicial Activism. It also highlights the need for the independence of the judiciary & also the Judicial institutions: supreme court, high court and their various jurisdiction.

Local Governments

The chapter explains the need for the local government structure in a democracy like India. The chapter talks about the advantage of local governments and the Panchayati raj institutions. We also highlight the 73rd and the 74th amendments act along with the role played by Dr BR Ambedkar.

The Philosophy of The Constitution

The chapter comes up with the philosophical approach of the Indian constitution, it explains the democratic transformation and the concept of social justice. We also highlight the criticisms that the constitution of India faced also the diversity and the minority rights.

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