The Bahmani kingdom was created by Ala-ud-din Hasan. He rose to prominence in the service of a guy named Gangu, earning him the moniker Hasan Gangu. When he ascended to the throne in 1347, he took the name Ala-ud-din Bahman Shah. His dynasty was dubbed the Bahmani.
The Bahmani empire lasted 180 years, from 1347 to 1527. The kingdom's capitals were Gulbarga and afterwards Bidar. The kingdom extended throughout northern Deccan, all the way to the Krishna River.
The kingdom's two most powerful individuals were Firoz Shah Bahmani and Mahmud Gawan.
Firoz Shah Bahmani (1397-1422)
Firoz Shah was a despotic ruler. He conquered the Gond king Narsing Rai and annexed portions of his lands. Additionally, he attacked the Vijayanagar rulers and captured the fertile Raichur doab. He conquered it, but then relinquished it.
Firoz Shah was an illustrious scholar. He was endowed with a scientific temperament. Additionally, he was a great poet who fluently spoke Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Telugu, Kannada, and Marathi.
He elevated Deccan to the status of India's cultural capital. Numerous educated Delhi residents relocated to the Deccan.
He was a tolerant emperor who valued all religions. His court had a substantial Hindu population.
Mahmud Gawan (1463–1481)
Mahmud Gawan was Muhammad Shah III's wazir (Prime Minister). He bolstered the kingdom's strength. He was born in the Islamic Republic of Iran. He settled in India's Deccan region. He sought work in the Bahmani king's court and rapidly established himself as the king's favourite. For 18 years, he presided over the kingdom's affairs.
He expanded the kingdom and reorganised the civic, military, and financial administrations.
Mahmud Gawan was a well-known benefactor of education. He was well-versed in mathematics and literature. By inviting Iranian and Iraqi experts, he supported the expansion of the Urdu language.
Furthermore, he built a splendid madrasah or college in Bidar. It drew students from all throughout India, as well as from beyond.
He pursued a strategy of accommodation but was unable to bring the two clans together.
His adversaries concocted a scheme against him and he was assassinated in 1481.
His successors lacked effectiveness.
The feud between the Deccani and Pardesi nobles was a perpetual source of contention for the monarchy. The Deccanis were indigenous nobility. The Pardesis were seasonal labourers. They had come from Iran, Turkey, Arabia, and Central Asia to the Bahmani court.
The two factions were continually plotting against one another in secret.
Governors from remote regions declared their independence. Without strong rulers, the kingdom began to collapse.
Administration of Bahamani Kingdom
The Prime Minister presided over the central government. He was called wazir or vakil. Other senior officials included the finance minister (amir jumla), the foreign affairs minister (wazir-i-ashraf), and the Sadar-i-Jahan (head of the religious and judicial department).
Numerous tarafs, or provinces, split the realm. Each territory was ruled by an amir or tarafdar.
He was rewarded with jagirs. Governors were responsible for maintaining their own troops. They provided warriors and equipment to the king during times of war.
Architecture of Bahamani Kingdom
Architecture developed under the influence of the Bahmani kings as they built numerous mosques, madrasahs, and libraries.
The Jama Masjid in Gulbarga, Mahmud Gawan's madrasah, and his grave in Bidar are the most significant Bahmani monuments. The Bijapur rulers, the Bahmani's successors, created the Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur. It incorporates various characteristics of Bahmani architecture.
In the early sixteenth century, the Bahmani empire was divided into five distinct kingdoms: Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, Golconda, Berar, and Bidar. Following that, Ahmadnagar and Bijapur were annexed by Berar and Bidar, respectively.
In the late sixteenth century, the Mughals annexed the kingdoms of Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, and Golconda.