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Flood Governance in India


With an average of 75 million people affected by floods each year, India is one of the nations most prone to flooding in the globe. Massive economic and social disruptions brought on by floods include human casualties and property damage. In this essay, we will examine the policies, institutions, and difficulties associated with flood governance in India.

Governance Policy Framework for Floods

At the national, state, and local levels, several policies and frameworks control flood governance in India. A significant piece of legislation that offers a framework for managing disasters, including floods, is the National Disaster Management Act of 2005. In accordance with the Act, the government, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and community-based groups all have certain duties and obligations (CBOs).

Governance Institutional Framework for Floods

The Ministry of Home Affairs is in charge of managing disasters, including floods, on a national basis. A crucial organisation that offers guidance and support for disaster management efforts is the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). Each state has a State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) that is in charge of managing disasters at the state level, including floods. In addition, a number of other government organisations, like the Indian Meteorological Department and the Central Water Commission, are involved in flood governance.

Issues with Flood Governance

There are a number of obstacles to efficient flood governance in India, despite the existence of regulations and organisations. The lack of cooperation between various authorities and parties is one of the main problems. Duplication of effort, a delay in reaction, and inefficient resource use might result from this. Communities' lack of readiness is another issue, which can worsen the effects of floods.

Improvements to Flood Governance Initiatives

Numerous efforts to enhance flood governance in India have been made in recent years. A national disaster management action plan created by the NDMA includes specific steps for lowering the danger of flooding. Additionally, a number of NGOs and CBOs are trying to enhance community-level flood preparedness and response. There have also been initiatives to enhance collaboration between various authorities and stakeholders, such as the creation of a national platform for disaster risk reduction.

Important Flood Management/Erosion Control Task Force 2004 recommendations

  • Increase the central government's involvement in flood control - From the current 75:25, the flood management plans should be supported through a centrally sponsored programme with 90% central funding and 10% state funding.

  • At least 1% of the total plan expense may be invested overall in plan/flood management.

  • Setting aside money from the state sector as Additional Central Assistance for embankment upkeep.

  • The establishment of a 50 crore rupee revolving fund that may be made yearly accessible to the ministry of water resources for the implementation of emergency flood management plans.

  • Adding a Member (Works) and creating the proper field organisation will strengthen the Ganga Flood Control Commission and allow it to better investigate and carry out crucial flood management projects.

  • Enhanced Flood Management In order to have policy formation and coordination among various agencies, the Central Water Commission was created by bringing back the earlier disbanded Member (Floods) office and redistributing the Chief Engineer, two Directors, and other lower level employees.


Although there are numerous measures being undertaken to address the problem, flood governance in India remains a complicated and difficult topic. Coordination between various authorities and stakeholders is necessary for effective flood governance, as is community readiness. Together, we can strengthen India's ability to withstand floods and lessen their toll on people's lives and means of subsistence.


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