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Business Services | Business Studies | Class 11

What are the basic features of services?

There are five basic features of services. These features also distinguish them from goods and are known as the five I’s of services.


Services are intangible, i.e., they cannot be touched. They are experiential in nature.

One can only experience it.

Often, the quality of the offer cannot be determined before consumption/purchase.

It is, therefore, important for the service providers that they consciously work on creating a desired service so that the customer undergoes a favourable experience.


Since there is no standard tangible product, services have to be performed exclusively each time.

Different customers have different demands and expectations.

Service providers need to have an opportunity to alter their offer to closely meet the requirements of the customers.


Simultaneous activity of production and consumption being performed. - seem to be inseparable.

Service providers may design a substitute for the person by using appropriate technology but the interaction with the customer remains a key feature of services.

Inventory (Less): No Inventory Required

Services have little or no tangible components and, therefore, cannot be stored for a future use.

That is, services are perishable and providers can, at best, store some associated goods but not the service itself.

This means that the demand and supply needs to be managed as the service has to be performed as and when the customer asks for it.

They cannot be performed earlier to be consumed at a later date.


Participation of the customer in the service delivery process.

A customer has the opportunity to get the services modified according to specific requirements.

Difference Between Services and Goods





An activity or process. e.g..

watching a movie in a cinema hall

A physical object. e.g.

video cassette of movie





Intangible e.g., doctor treatment

Tangible, E.g: Medicine


Different customers having different demands e.g., mobile services

Different customers getting

standardised demands fulfilled e.g., mobile phones


Simultaneous production and consumption. e.g., eating ice-cream in a restaurant

Separation of production and consumption. e.g.. purchasing ice cream from a store


Cannot be kept in stock. e.g. experience of a train journey

Can be Kept in Stock: Train Journey ticket


Participation of customers at the time of service delivery. e.g. self-service in a fast food joint

Involvement at the time of

delivery not possible. e.g.

manufacturing a vehicle

Types of Services

Business Services:

Business services are those services which are used by business enterprises for the conduct of their activities.

Social Services:

Social services are those services that are generally provided voluntarily in pursuit of certain social goals.

These social goals may be to improve the standard of living for weaker sections of society, to provide educational services to their children, or to provide health care and hygienic conditions in slum areas.

These services are usually provided voluntarily but for some consideration to cover their costs.

Personal Services:

Personal services are those services which are experienced differently by different customers.

These services cannot be consistent in nature. They will differ depending upon the service provider.

They will also depend upon customers preferences and demands.

For example, tourism, recreational services, restaurants.


Commercial banks are an important institution of the economy for providing institutional credit to its customers.

A banking company in India is the one which transacts the business of banking which means accepting, for the purpose of lending and investment of deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise and withdraw able by cheques, draft, order or otherwise.

In simple terms, a bank accepts money on deposits, repayable on demand and also earns a margin of profit by lending money.

A bank stimulates economic activity in the market by dealing in money. It mobilizes the savings of people and makes funds available to business financing their capital and revenue expenditure.

It also deals in financial instruments and provides financial services for a price i.e., interest, discount, commission, etc.

Type of Banks

Banks can be classified into the following:

  1. Commercial banks

  2. Cooperative banks

  3. Specialized banks

  4. Central bank

Commercial Banks:

Commercial banks are institutions dealing in money. These are governed by Indian Banking Regulation Act 1949 and according to its banking mean accepting deposits of money from the public for the purpose of lending or investment.

There are two types of commercial banks, public sector and private sector banks.

Public sectors banks are those in which the government has a major stake and they usually need to emphasize on social objectives than on profitability.

Private sector banks are owned, managed and controlled by private promoters and they are freeto operate as per market forces.

Cooperative Banks:

Cooperative Banks are governed by the provisions of State Cooperative Societies Act and meant essentially for providing cheap credit to their members.

It is an important source of rural credit i.e., agricultural financing in India.

Specialized Banks:

Specialized banks are foreign exchange banks, industrial banks, development banks, exportimport banks catering to specific needs of these unique activities.

These banks provide financial aid to industries, heavy turnkey projects and foreign trade.

Central Bank:

The Central bank of any country supervises controls and regulates the activities of all the commercial banks of that country.

It also acts as a government banker. It controls and coordinates currency and credit policies of any country.

The Reserve Bank of India is the central bank of our country.

Functions of Commercial Banks

Acceptance of deposits:

Deposits are the basis of the loan operations since banks are both borrowers and lenders of money.

As borrowers they pay interest and as lenders they grant loans and get interest.

These deposits are generally taken through current account, savings account and fixed deposits.

Current account deposits can be withdrawn to the extent of the balance at any time without any prior notice. Savings accounts are for encouraging savings by individuals. Banks pay rate of interest as decided by RBI on these deposits.

Withdrawal from these accounts has some restrictions in relation to the amount as well as number of times in a given period. Fixed accounts are time deposits with higher rate of interest as compared to the savings accounts.

A premature withdrawal is permissible with a percentage of interest being forfeited.

Lending of funds:

Second major activity of commercial banks is to provide loans and advances out of the money received through deposits.

These advances can be made in the form of overdrafts, cash credits, discounting trade bills, term loans, consumer credits and other miscellaneous advances.

The funds lent out by banks contribute a great deal to trade, industry, transport and other business activities.

Cheque facility:

Banks render a very important service to their customers by collecting their cheques drawn on other banks.

The cheque is the most developed credit instrument, a unique feature and function of banks for the withdrawal of deposits.

It is the most convenient and an inexpensive medium of exchange.

There are two types of cheques mainly
  1. bearer cheques

  2. crossed cheques.

Remittance of funds:

Another salient function of commercial banks is of providing the facility of fund transfer from one place to another, on account of the interconnectivity of branches.

The transfer of funds is administered by using bank drafts, pay orders or mail transfers, on nominal commission charges.

The bank issues a draft for the amount on its own branches at other places or other banks at those places. The payee can present the draft on the drawee bank at his place and collect the amount.

Allied services:

In addition to above functions, banks also provide allied services such as bill payments, locker facilities, underwriting services.

They also perform other services like buying and selling of shares and debentures on instructions and other personal services like payment of insurance premium, collection of dividend etc.


The growth of Internet and e-commerce is dramatically changing everyday life, with the World Wide Web and e-commerce transforming the world into a digital global village.

The latest wave in information technology is internet banking. It is a part of virtual banking and another delivery channel for customers.

In simple terms, internet banking means any user with a PC and a browser can get connected to the banks website to perform any of the virtual banking functions and avail of any of the banks services.

There is no human operator to respond to the needs of the customer. The bank has a centralized data base that is web-enabled.

All the services that the bank has permitted on the internet are displayed on a menu. Any service can be selected and further interaction is dictated by the nature of service.

In this new digital market place banks and financial institutions have started providing services over the internet.

These types of services provided by the banks on the internet, called e-banking, lower the transaction cost, adds value to the banking relationship and empowers customers.

E-banking is electronic banking or banking using electronic media. Thus, e-banking is a service provided by many banks, that allows, a customer to conduct banking transactions, such as managing savings, checking accounts, applying for loans or paying bills over the internet using a personal computer, mobile telephone or handheld computer (personal digital assistant)

The range of services offered by e-banking are: Automated Teller Machines (ATM) and Point of Sales (PoS), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Credit Cards Electronic or Digital cash and Electronic bank transfer (EFT).

Benefits to Customers

There are various benefits of e-banking provided to customers which are:

  • e-banking provides 24 hours, 365 days a year services to the customers of the bank;

  • Customers can make some of the permitted transactions from office or house or while travelling via mobile telephone;

  • It inculcates a sense of financial discipline by recording each and every transaction;

  • Greater customer satisfaction by offering unlimited access to the bank, not limited by the walls of the branch and less risk and greater security to the customer as they can avoid travelling with cash.

Benefits of e-Banking for Bankers

  • The banks also stand to gain by e-banking. The benefits are:

  • e-banking provides competitive advantage to the bank;

  • e-banking provides unlimited network to the bank and is not limited to the number of branches, Any PC connected to a modem and a telephone having an internet connection can provide cash withdrawal needs of the customer;

  • Load on branches can be considerably reduced by establishing centralized data base and by taking over some of the accounting functions.


Life is full of uncertainties. The chances of occurrence of an event causing losses are quite uncertain.

There are risks of death and disability for human life; fire and burglary risk for property; perils of the sea for shipment of goods and, so on.

If any of these takes place, the individuals and/or, organizations may suffer a great loss, sometimes beyond their capacities to bear the same. It is to minimize the impact of such uncertainties that there is a need for insurance.

Investment in factory buildings or heavy equipments or other assets is not possible unless there is arrangement for covering the risks, with the help of insurance.

Keeping this in mind, people facing common risks come together and make small contributions to a common fund, which helps to spread the loss caused to an individual by a particular risk over a number of persons who are exposed to it.

Insurance is thus a device by which the loss likely to be caused by an uncertain event is spread over a number of persons who are exposed to it and who prepare to insure themselves against such an event.

It is a contract or agreement under which one party agrees in return for a consideration to pay an agreed amount of money to another party to make a loss, damage or injury to something of value in which the insured has a pecuniary interest as a result of some uncertain event.

The agreement/contract is put in writing and is known as policy. The person whose risk is insured is called insured and the firm which insures the risk of loss is known as insurer/ assurance underwriter.

Fundamental principle of Insurance

The basic principle of insurance is that an individual or a business concern chooses to spend a definitely known sum in place of a possible huge amount involved in an indefinite future loss.

Thus insurance is the substitution of a small periodic payment (premium) for a risk of large possible loss.

The loss of risk still remains but the loss is spread over a large number of policyholders exposed to the same risk. The premium paid by them are pooled out of which the loss sustained by any policy holder is compensated. Thus, risks are shared with others.

Insurance, therefore, is a form of risk management primarily used to safe guard against the risk of potential financial loss. Ideally, insurance is defined as the equitable transfer of the risk of a potential loss, from one entity to another, in exchange for a reasonable fee.

Insurance company, therefore, is an association, corporation or an organization engaged in the business of paying all legitimate claims that may arise, in exchange for a fee (known as premium).

Insurance is a social device in which a group of individuals (insured) transfers risk to another party (insurer) in order to combine loss experience, which provides for payment of losses from funds contributed (premium) by all members.

Insurance is meant to protect the insured, against uncertain events, which may cause disadvantage to him.

Functions of Insurance

Provide certainty:

Insurance provides certainty of payment for the risk of loss. There are uncertainties of happenings of time and amount of loss.

Insurance removes these uncertainties and the assured receives payment of loss. The insurer charges premium for providing the certainty.


The second main function of insurance is to provide protection from probable chances of loss. Insurance cannot stop the happening of a risk or event but can compensate for losses arising out of it.

Risk sharing:

On the happening of a risk event, the loss is shared by all the persons exposed to it. The share is obtained from every insured member by way of premiums.

Assist in capital formation:

The accumulated funds of the insurer received by way of premium payments made by the insured are invested in various income generating schemes.

Principles of Insurance

Utmost good faith:

A contract of insurance is a contract of<em>uberrimae fidei</em>e., a contract found on utmost good faith.

Both the insurer and the insured should display good faith towards each other in regard to the contract.

It is the duty of the insured to voluntarily make full, accurate disclosure of all facts, material to the risk being proposed and the insurer to make clear all the terms and conditions in the insurance contract.

Thus, it is binding on the proposer to disclose all material facts about the subject matter of the proposed insurance.

Any fact, which is likely to affect the mind of a prudent insurer in deciding to accept the proposal of insurance or in fixing the rate of premium, is material for this purpose. Failure to make disclosure of material facts by the insured makes the contract of insurance voidable at the discretion of the insurer.

Insurable Interest:

The insured must have an insurable interest in the subject matter of insurance. One fundamental fact of this principle is that it is not the house, ship, machinery, potential liability of life that is insured, but it is the pecuniary interest of the insured in them, which is insured. Insurable interest means some pecuniary interest in the subject matter of the insurance contract.

The insured must have an interest in the preservation of the thing or life insured, so that he/ she will suffer financially on the happening of the event against which he/she is insured. In case of insurance of property, insurable interest of the insured in the subject matter of the insurance must exist at the time of happening of the event.

In order to name insurable interest however, it is not necessary that one should be the owner of the property.


All insurance contracts of fire or marine insurance are contracts of indemnity. According to it, the insurer undertakes to put the insured, in the event of loss, in the same position that he occupied immediately before the happening of the event insured against.

In other words the insurer undertakes to compensate the insured for the loss caused to him/ her due to damage or destruction of property insured.

The compensation payable and the loss suffered are to be measured in terms of money. The principle of indemnity is not applicable to life insurance.

Proximate Cause:

According to this principle, an insurance policy is designed to provide compensation only for such losses as are caused by the perils which are stated in the policy.

When the loss is the result of two or more causes, the proximate cause means the direct, the most dominant and most effective cause of which the loss is the natural consequence. In case of loss arising out of any mishap, the most proximate cause of the mishap should be taken into consideration.


It refers to the right of the insurer to stand in the place of the insured, after settlement of a claim, as far as the right of insured in respect of recovery from an alternative source is involved.

After the insured is compensated for the loss or damage to the property insured by him/her the right of ownership of such property passes on to the insurer.

This is because the insured should not be allowed to make any profit, by selling the damaged property or in the case of lost property being recovered.


As per this principle it is the right of an insurer who has paid claim under insurance, to call upon other liable insurers to contribute for the loss of payment.

It implies that in case of double insurance, the insurers are to share the losses in proportion to the amount assured by each of them.

In case there is a loss, when there is more than one policy on the same property, the insured will have no right to recover more than the full amount of his actual loss.

If the full amount is recovered from one insurer the right to obtain further payment from the other insurer will cease.


This principle states that it is the duty of the insured to take reasonable steps to minimize the loss or damage to the insured property.

Suppose goods kept in a store house catch fire then the owner of the goods should try to recover the goods and save them from fire to minimize the loss or damage.

The insured must behave with great prudence and not be careless just because there is an insurance cover.

If reasonable care is not taken like any prudent person then the claim from the insurance company may be lost.

Types of Insurance

Life Insurance

Since life itself is uncertain, all individuals try to assure themselves of a certain sum of money in the future to take care of unforeseen events or happenings. Individuals in the course of their life are always exposed to some kind of risks.

The risk may be of an event which is certain that is death. In that case, what will happen to the other members of the family who are dependent on a particular individuals income?

The other risk may be living too long in which an individual may become too old to earn i.e., retirement. In this case also, the earnings will decline or end.

Under such circumstances, individuals seek protection against these risks and life insurance companies offer protection against such risks.

A life insurance policy was introduced as a protection against the uncertainty of life. But gradually its scope has widened and there are various types of insurance policies available to suit the requirements of an individual.

Life insurance may be defined as a contract in which the insurer in consideration of a certain premium, either in a lump sum or by other periodical payments, agrees to pay to the assured, or to the person for whose benefit the policy is taken, the assured sum of money, on the happening of a specified event contingent on the human life or at the expiry of certain period.

Thus, the insurance company undertakes to insure the life of a person in exchange for a sum of money called premium. This premium may be paid in one lump sum, or periodically i.e., monthly, quarterly, half yearly or yearly.

At the same time, the company promises to pay a certain sum of money either on the death of the person or on his attaining a certain age. Thus, the person is sure that a specified amount will be given to him when he attains a certain age or that his dependents will get that sum in the event of his death.

This agreement or contract which contains all the terms and conditions is put in writing and such document is called the policy.

The person whose life is insured is called the assured. The insurance company is the insurer and the consideration paid by the assured is the premium. The premium can be paid periodically in installments.

This insurance provides protection to the family at the premature death or gives adequate amount at old age when earning capacities are reduced. The insurance is not only a protection but is a sort of investment because a certain sum is returnable to the insured at the time of death or at the expiry of a certain period.

Life insurance also encourages savings as the amount of premium has to be paid regularly. It thus, provides a sense of security to the insured and his dependents.

The general principles of insurance discussed in the previous section apply to life insurance also with a few exceptions. The main elements of a life insurance contract are:

  • the life insurance contract must have all the essentials of a valid contract. Certain elements like offer and acceptance, free consent, capacity to enter into a contract, lawful consideration and lawful object must be present for the contract to be valid;

  • The contract of life insurance is a contract of utmost good faith. The assured should be honest and truthful in giving information to the insurance company. He must disclose all material facts about his health to the insurer. It is his duty to disclose accurately all material facts known to him even if the insurer does not ask him;

  • In life insurance, the insured must have insurable interest in the life assured. Without insurable interest the contract of insurance is void. In case of life insurance, insurable interest must be present at the time when the insurance is affected. It is not necessary that the assured should have insurable interest at the time of maturity also.

  • Life insurance contract is not a contract of indemnity. The lifeof a human being cannot be compensated and only a specified sum of money is paid. That is why the amount payable in life insurance on the happening of the event is fixed in advance. The sum of money payable is fixed, at the time of entering into the contract. A contract of life insurance, therefore, is not a contract of indemnity.

Types of life insurance policies

Whole Life Policy:

In this kind of policy, the amount payable to the insured will not be paid before the death of the assured. The sum then becomes payable only to the beneficiaries or heir of the deceased. The premium will be payable for a fixed period or for the whole life of the assured. If the premium is payable for a fixed period, the policy will continue till the death of the assured.

Endowment Life Assurance Policy:

The insurer undertakes to pay a specified sum when the insured attains a particular age or on his death whichever is earlier.

The sum is payable to his legal heir/s or nominee named therein in case of death of the assured. Otherwise, the sum will be paid to the assured after fixed periods i.e., till he/she attains a particular age.

Thus, the endowment policy matures after a limited number of years.

Joint Life Policy:

This policy is taken up by two or more persons. The premium is paid jointly or by either of them in installments or lump sum.

The assured sum or policy money is payable upon the death of any one person to the other survivor or survivors.

Usually this policy is taken up by husband and wife jointly or by two partners in a partnership firm where the amount is payable to the survivor on the death of either of the two.

Annuity Policy:

Under this policy, the assured sum or policy money is payable after the assured attains a certain age in monthly, quarterly, and half yearly or annual installments.

The premium is paid in installments over a certain period or single premium may be paid by the assured. This is useful to those who prefer a regular income after a certain age.

Childrens Endowment Policy:

This policy is taken by a person for his/her children to meet the expenses of their education or marriage.

The agreement states that a certain sum will be paid by the insurer when the children attain a particular age.

The premium is paid by the person entering into the contract. However, no premium will be paid, if he dies before the maturity of the policy.

Fire Insurance

Fire insurance is a contract whereby the insurer, in consideration of the premium paid, undertakes to make good any loss or damage caused by fire during a specified period up to the amount specified in the policy.

Normally, the fire insurance policy is for a period of one year after which it is to be renewed from time to time. The premium may be paid either in lump sum or installments.

A claim for loss by fire must satisfy the two following conditions:

There must be actual loss; and

Fire must be accidental and non-intentional.

The risk covered by a fire insurance contract is the loss resulting from fire or some other cause, and which is the proximate cause of the loss.

If overheating without ignition causes damage, it will not be regarded as a fire loss within the meaning of fire insurance and the loss will not be recoverable from the insurer.

A fire insurance contract is based on certain fundamental principles which have been discussed in general principles. The main elements of a fire insurance contract are:

  1. in fire insurance, the insured must have insurable interest in the subject matter of the insurance. Without insurable interest the contract of insurance is void. In case of fire insurance, unlike life insurance insurable interest must be present both at the time of insurance and at the time of loss.

  2. Similar to the life insurance contract, the contract of fire insurance is a contract of utmost good faith i.e.,uberrimae fidei. The insured should be truthful and honest in giving information to the insurance company regarding the subject matter of the insurance. He is duty-bound to disclose accurately all facts regarding the nature of property and risks attached to it. The insurance company should also disclose the facts of the policy to the proposer.

  3. The contract of fire insurance is a contract of strict indemnity. The insured can, in the event of loss, recover the actual amount of loss from the insurer. This is subject to the maximum amount for which the subject matter is insured.

  4. The insurer is liable to compensate only when fire is the proximate cause of damage or loss.

Marine Insurance

A marine insurance contract is an agreement whereby the insurer undertakes to indemnify the insured in the manner and to the extent thereby agreed against marine losses.

Marine insurance provides protection against loss by marine perils or perils of the sea. Marine perils are collision of ship with the rock, or ship attacked by the enemies, fire and captured by pirates and actions of the captains and crew of the ship.

These perils cause damage, destruction or disappearance of the ship and cargo and nonpayment of freight. So, marine insurance insures ship hull, cargo and freight.

Thus, it is a device wherein the insurer undertakes to compensate the owner of a ship or cargo for complete or partial loss at sea.

The insurer guarantees to make good the losses due to damage to the ship or cargo arising out of the risks incidental to sea voyages. The insurer in this case is known as the underwriter and a certain sum of money is paid by the insured in consideration for the guarantee/protection he gets.

Marine insurance is slightly different from other types. There are three things involved i.e., ship or hull, cargo or goods, and freight.

  • Ship or hull insurance:Since the ship is exposed to many dangers at sea, the insurance policy is for indemnifying the insured for losses caused by damage to the ship.

  • Cargo insurance:The cargo while being transported by ship is subject to many risks. These may be at port i.e., risk of theft, lost goods or on voyage etc. Thus, an insurance policy can be issued to cover against such risks to cargo.

  • Freight insurance:If the cargo does not reach the destination due to damage or loss in transit, the shipping company is not paid freight charges. Freight insurance is for reimbursing the loss of freight to the shipping company i.e., the insured.

The fundamental principles of marine insurance are the same as the general principles. The main elements of a marine insurance contract are:

  • unlike life insurance, the contract of marine insurance is a contract of indemnity. The insured can, in the event of loss recover the actual amount of loss from the insurer. Under no circumstances, the insured is allowed to make profit out of the marine insurance contract. But cargo policies provide commercial indemnity rather than strict indemnity. The insurers promise to indemnify the insured in the manner and to the extent agreed.In case of Hull Policy, the amount insured is fixed at a level above the current market value;

  • Similar to life and fire insurance, the contract of marine insurance is a contract of utmost good faith. Both the insured and insurer must disclose everything, which is in their knowledge and can affect the insurance contract. The insured is duty-bound to accurately disclose all facts which include the nature of shipment and the risk of damage it is exposed to;

  • Insurable interest must exist at the time of loss but not necessary at the time when the policy was taken;

  • The principle of causa proxima will apply to it. The insurance company will be liable to pay only if that particular or nearest cause is covered by the policy. For example, if a loss is caused by several reasons then nearest cause of loss will be considered.

Communication Services

Communication services are helpful to the business for establishing links with the outside world viz., suppliers, customers, competitors etc. Business does not exist in isolation; it has to communicate with others for transmission of ideas and information.

Communication services need to be very efficient, accurate and fast for them to be effective. In this fast moving and competitive world it is essential to have advanced technology for quick exchange of information.

The electronic media is mainly responsible for this transformation. The main services which help business can be classified into postal and telecom.

Postal Services

Indian post and telegraph department provides various postal services across India. For providing these services the whole country has been divided into 22 postal circles.

These circles manage the day-to-day functioning of the various head post offices, sub-post offices and branch post offices. Through their regional and divisional level arrangements the various facilities provided by postal department are broadly categorized into:

  • Financial facilities: These facilities are provided through the post offices savings schemes like Public Provident Fund (PPF),Kisan Vikas Patra, and National Saving Certificates in addition to normal retail banking functions of monthly income schemes, recurringdeposits, savings account, time deposits and money order facility.

  • Mail facilities: Mail services consist of parcel facilities that are trans-mission of articles from one place to another; registration facility to provide security of the transmitted articles and insurance facility to provide insurance cover for all risks in the course of transmission by post.

Telecom Services

World class telecommunications infrastructure is the key to rapid economic and social development of the country. It is in fact the backbone of every business activity.

In todays world the dream of doing business across continents will remain a dream in the absence of telecom infrastructure.

There have been far reaching developments in the convergence of telecom, IT, consumer electronics and media industries worldwide.

Recognizing the potential in enhancing quality of life and to facilitate Indias vision of becoming IT super power by the year 2025, new Telecom Policy Framework 1999 and Broadband Policy 2004 were developed by the Government of India.

Through this framework the government intends to provide both universal services toall uncovered areas and high-level services for meeting the needs of the countrys economy.

The various types of telecom services are:

Cellular mobile services:

These are all types of mobile telecom services including voice and non-voice messages, data services and PCO services utilizing any type of network equipment within their service area.

They can also provide direct inter connectivity with any other type of telecom service provider.

Radio paging services:

Radio Paging Service is an affordable means of transmitting information to persons even when they are mobile.

It is a one-way information broadcasting solution, and has spread its reach far and wide. Radio paging services are available including tone only, numeric only and alpha/numeric paging.

Fixed line services:

These are all types of fixed services including voice and non-voice messages and data services to establish linkages for long distance traffic.

These utilize any type of network equipment primarily connected through fiber optic cables laid across the length and breadth of the country. They also provide inter connectivity with other types of telecom services.

Cable services:

These are linkages and switched services within a licensed area of operation to operate media services, which are essentially one way entertainment related services.

The two way communication including voice, data and information services through cable network would emerge significantly in the future. Offering services through the cable network would be similar to providing fixed services.

VSAT services:

VSAT(Very Small Aperture Terminal) is a satellite-based communications service. It offers businesses and government agencies a highly flexible and reliable communication solution in both urban and rural areas.

Compared to land-based services, VSAT offers the assurance of reliable and uninterrupted service that is equal to or better than land-based services.

It can be used to provide innovative applications such as tele-medicine, newspapers-on-line, market rates and tele-education even in the most remote areas of our country.

DTH services:

DTH (Direct to Home) is again a satellite based media services provided by cellular companies. One can receive media services directly through a satellite with the help of a small dish antenna and a set top box.

The service provider of DTH services provides a bouquet of multiple channels. It can be viewed on our television without being dependent on the services provided by the cable network services provider.


Transportation comprises freight services together with supporting and auxiliary services by all modes of transportation i.e., rail, road, air and sea for the movement of goods and international carriage of passengers.


Storage has always been an important aspect of economic development. The warehouse was initially viewed as a static unit for keeping and storing goods in a scientific and systematic manner so as to maintain their original quality, value and usefulness.

The typical warehouse received merchandise by rail, truck or bullock cart. The items were moved manually to storage within the warehouse and hand piled in stacks on the floor.

They are used by manufacturers, importers, exporters, wholesalers, transport business, customs etc., in India.

Todays warehouses have ceased to be mere storage service providers and have really become logistical service providers in a cost efficient manner. That is making available the right quantity, at the right place, in the right time, in the right physical form at the right cost.

Modern warehouses are automated with automatic conveyors, computer operated cranes and forklifts for moving goods and also usage of logistics automation softwares for warehouse management.

Types of Warehouses

Private Warehouses:

Private warehouses are operated, owned or leased by a company handling their own goods, such as retail chainstores or multi-brand multi-product companies.

As a general rule an efficient warehouse is planned around a material handling system in order to encourage maximum efficiency of product movement. The benefit of private warehousing includes control, flexibility, and other benefits like improved dealer relations.

Public warehouses:

Public warehouses can be used for storage of goods by traders, manufacturers or any member of the public after the payment of a storage fee or charges.

The government regulates the operation of these warehouses by issuing licenses for them to private parties.

The owner of the warehouse stands as an agent of the owner of the goods and is expected to take appropriate care of the goods.

These warehouses provide other facilities also like transportation by rail and road. They are responsible for the full safety of the goods. Small manufacturers find it very convenient as they cannot afford to construct their own warehouses.

The other benefits include flexibility in the number of locations, no fixed cost and capability of offering value added services like packaging and labeling.

Bonded warehouses:

Bonded warehouses are licensed by the government to accept imported goods prior to payment of tax and customs duty.

These are goods which are imported from other countries. Importers are not permitted to remove goods from the docks or the airport till customs duty is paid.

At times, importers are not in a position to pay the duty in full or do not require all the goods immediately. The goods are kept in bonded warehouses by the customs authorities till the customs duty is paid. These goods are said to be in bond.

These warehouses have facilities for branding, packaging, grading and blending. Importers may bring their buyers for inspection of goods and repackage them according to their requirements.

Thus, it facilitates marketing of goods.

Goods can be removed in part as and when required by the importers and buyers, and import duty can be paid in installments.

The importer need not block funds for payment of import duties before the goods are sold or used. Even if he wishes to export the goods kept in the bonded warehouse he may do so without payment of customs duty. Thus, bonded warehouses facilitate entrepot trade.

Government warehouses:

These warehouses are fully owned and managed by the government. The government manages them through organizations set up in the public sector.

Cooperative warehouses:

Some marketing cooperative societies or agricultural cooperative societies have set up their own warehouses for members of their cooperative society.

Functions of warehousing


In this function the warehouse receives and consolidates, materials/goods from different production plant