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CBSE Class 12 - History NCERT Notes

Bricks, Beads and Bones

The chapter introduces students to one of the ancient civilisation in the history of humans, The Indus Valley Civilisation. The chapter focuses on the detailed analysis of the civilisation: from agriculture to the socio-economic practices and trade. It also highlights the part settlements of 'Mohenjodarao' & enlists various historians and their accounts on the settlements.

Kinship, Caste & Class

The Chapter introduces students to early Indian history, explains social behaviour, and various social differences beyond and within the framework of caste. We also highlight the critical edition of Mahabharata and the varna system and its integration of varna practices. The chapter also talks about the types and rules of different marriages.

Through the Eyes of Travellers

The chapter introduces students to the various travellers who travelled to the Indian sub-continent: Al-Biruni, Ibn-Batutta & Francois Bernier. It highlights what the travellers saw and wrote into their accounts. These were the travellers who wrote detailed accounts regarding Indian social customs & religious practices.

An Imperial Capital Of Vijaynagara

The chapter introduces students to one of the greatest empires of southern India, the Vijayanagara empire. We highlight various dynasties and all the developments that happened during their regime, also the architectural wisdom of the empire and some of the greatest temples.

Kings And Chronicles

The chapter introduces students to the Mughal empire and the great chronicles: The Akbar Nama And The Badshah Nama. The chapter also talks about the policy of Sulh-i Kul, the capital and the Mughal Courts. We also highlight the pilgrimage and the trade of the ottomans.

Rebels And Raj

The chapter introduces students to the first war of independence: the rebellion of 1857 against the colonial power in India. It defines the causes and impact of the rebellion and its consequences. We highlight all the events that took place amid the disruption.

Mahatma Gandhi And The Nationalist Movement

The chapter introduces students to the life of one of the great leaders of India, the father of the nation' Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. The chapter describes all the events that led to the making and unmaking of the non-cooperation movement against the British raj. We also highlight all the satyagraha performed by Gandhi Ji and their causes and the consequences.

Framing The Constitution

The chapter introduces the students to the time when the constitution of India was being framed, it talks about the constituent assembly and its members. The chapter states what type of constitution was needed and what were the visions that were supposed to be present in an ideal constitution. We also highlight the major role players like BR Ambedkar and Raghunath Vinayak Dhulekar etc.

Kings, Farmers & Towns

The chapter introduces students to the early states and economies, it also enlists the fact about James Princep, an officer in the mint of the East India company who deciphered the two scripts used in the earliest inscriptions & coins named Brahmini and Kharosti. We also highlight the Magadh region and its importance also the facts and history of the Mauryan Empire.

Thinkers, Beliefs & Buildings

The chapter introduces students to the various cultural developments and the spread of Buddhism and Jainism. The chapter talks about various stupas: why they were built and their relevance also their great architecture. We also highlight the growth of puranic Hinduism.

Bhakti - Sufi Traditions

The chapter introduces students to Bhakti & Sufi traditions, the chapter also talks about the early tradition of bhakti in Tamil Nadu and various other regions. it also enlists the difference & conflicts between cults and traditions of Hinduism. It also highlights the teachings of Kabir, Guru Nanak, Mirabai & about Kanqas & Silsilas.

Peasants, Zamindars And The State

The chapter introduces students to the Mughal empire and the Agrarian society, it defines agrarian history through major chronicles like ' Ain-I Akbari'. The chapter also describes the rules of zamindari and the conditions of women in the agrarian society. We also highlight the land revenue systems: the economic mainstay in the Mughal empire.

Colonialism And Countryside

The chapter introduces students to the colonial administrative procedures and tax culture during the British raj. The chapter highlights various land revenue systems in India: Ryotwari, Taluqdari, Zamidari & Mahalwari systems. It also describes the people of the hills; Paharias and Santhals. Further, the chapter concludes on the role that India played during the American civil war and the Cotton boom.

Colonial Cities

The chapter introduces students to the towns and cities of colonial and pre-colonial times. It describes the history of the cities and why they were built, also what were the benefits that the colonial rule took from them altogether. It also highlights the segregation, town planning and architecture of Madras, Calcutta and Bombay.

Understanding The Partition

The chapter introduces students to the era of partition and allows them to understand the partition. The chapter talks about the history and the causes of the partition. The chapter also talks about the provincial elections of 1937 & the congress ministries.

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