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It is the harmonious integration of landscape and people — providing their food, energy, shelter, and other material and non-material needs in a sustainable way.

Permaculture is a phrase that refers to a systematic method of agriculture and habitation that reflects the interdependence and sustainability of natural ecosystems. Permaculture can be contrasted with intensive agriculture, which eventually renders land unsustainable for cultivation, thus depleting available areas for human habitation. Permaculture is an endeavour to maximise the use of land so that future generations can continue to do so in productive ways that allow for personal survival. It incorporates elements of organic farming, agroforestry, integrated farming, sustainable development, and applied ecology.

Permaculture aims to view a piece of land holistically, incorporating both animal and plant that lives on it and incorporating societal systems that promote long-term agriculture as well. Each component of a food cycle is dissected into what it requires and what it gives and then stitched together to form a dynamically self-sustaining whole.

Permaculture is based on three ethical principles: care for the land, care for people, and equitable distribution. They are the bedrock of permaculture design and are also prevalent in the majority of traditional societies. Simultaneously, permaculture transcends its origins as a mechanical set of principles for managing all cultures that may be used in the construction of sustainable systems.

Permaculture is based on the following principles: working with nature rather than against it; a protracted and thoughtful observation rather than protracted and thoughtless action; looking at systems in all of their functions rather than asking for a single yield, and allowing systems to demonstrate its own evolutions.

Critical Assessment

All alternative farming systems, including permaculture, organic farming and non-pesticide management methods, emphasise using local resources and not disturbing the local environment. Since agriculture is region-specific, we cannot have a blanket solution for every place. Many alternatives suffer because of ideological fixations. So adaptation is important. Without it, permaculture will remain an elite concept.


The current farming method is unsustainable. The land is a finite resource that is currently being over-exploited, with potentially disastrous results for humanity. As a result of the current state of climate change, agriculture and the nation's food supply are in jeopardy. Agricultural methods that are not sustainable have resulted in more serious consequences. A permaculture is a viable option, and measures must be taken before it is too late. It is a holistic approach that takes into consideration land, human and animal needs.

Earth provides enough to satisfy every man's needs, but not every man's greed ~ Mahatma Gandhi

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