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Forms of Business Organization | Business Studies | Class 11

Introduction

If one is planning to start a business or is interested in expanding an existing one, an important decision relates to the choice of the form of organization.

The most appropriate form is determined by weighing the advantages and disadvantages of each type of organization against ones own requirements.

Various forms of business organizations from which one can choose the right one include:

  • Sole proprietorship,

  • Joint Hindu family business,

  • Partnership,

  • Cooperative societies, and Joint stock company.


Sole Proprietorship

Sole proprietorship is a popular form of business organization and is the most suitable form for small businesses, especially in their initial years of operation.

Sole proprietorship refers to a form of business organization which is owned, managed and controlled by an individual who is the recipient of all profits and bearer of all risks.

This is evident from the term itself. The word sole implies only, and proprietor refers to owner.

Hence, a sole proprietor is the one who is the only owner of a business.

This form of business is particularly common in areas of personalized services such as beauty parlors, hair salons and small scale activities like running a retail shop in a locality.

Sole trader is a type of business unit where a person is solely responsible for providing the capital, for bearing the risk of the enterprise and for the management of business.

The individual proprietorship is the form of business organization at the head of which stands an individual as one who is responsible, who directs its operations and who alone runs the risk of failure.



Features of Sole Proprietorship


Formation and closure:

There is no separate law that governs sole proprietorship. Hardly any legal formalities are required to start a sole proprietary business, though in some cases one may require a license.

Closure of the business can also be done easily. Thus, there is ease in formation as well as closure of business.


Liability:

Sole proprietors have unlimited liability. This implies that the owner is personally responsible for payment of debts in case the assets of the business are not sufficient to meet all the debts.

As such the owners personal possessions such as his/her personal car and other assets could be sold for repaying the debt.


Sole risk bearer and profit recipient:

The risk of failure of business is borne all alone by the sole proprietor. However, if the business is successful, the proprietor enjoys all the benefits.

He receives all the business profits which become a direct reward for his risk bearing.


Control:

The right to run the business and make all decisions lies absolutely with the sole proprietor.

He can carry out his plans without any interference from others.


No separate entity:

In the eyes of the law, no distinction is made between the sole trader and his business, as business does not have an identity separate from the owner.

The owner is, therefore, held responsible for all the activities of the business.


Lack of business continuity:

The sale proprietorship business is owned and controlled by one person, therefore death, insanity, imprisonment, physical ailment or bankruptcy of the sole proprietor will have a direct and detrimental effect on the business and may even cause closure of the business.


Joint Hindu Family Business

Joint Hindu family business is a specific form of business organization found only in India.

It is one of the oldest forms of business organization in the country. It refers to a form of organization wherein the business is owned and carried on by the members of the Hindu Undivided Family (HUF).

It is governed by the Hindu Law. The basis of membership in the business is birth in a particular family and three successive generations can be members in the business.

The business is controlled by the head of the family who is the eldest member and is called karta. All members have equal ownership right over the property of an ancestor and they are known as co-parceners.


Features

Formation:

For a joint Hindu family business, there should be at least two members in the family and ancestral property to be inherited by them.

The business does not require any agreement as membership is by birth. It is governed by the Hindu Succession Act, 1956.


Liability:

The liability of all members except the karta is limited to their share of co-parcenery property of the business.

The karta, however, has unlimited liability.


Control:

The control of the family business lies with the karta. He takes all the decisions and is authorized to manage the business.

His decisions are binding on the other members.


Continuity:

The business continues even after the death of the karta, as the next eldest member takes up the position of karta, leaving the business stable.

The business can, however, be terminated with the mutual consent of the members.


Minor Members:

The inclusion of an individual into the business occurs due to birth in a Hindu Undivided Family.

Hence, minors can also be members of the business.


Partnership

The inherent disadvantage of the sole proprietorship in financing and managing an expanding business paved the way for partnership as a viable option.

Partnership serves as an answer to the needs of greater capital investment, varied skills and sharing of risks.

The Indian Partnership Act, 1932 defines partnership as the relation between persons who have agreed to share the profit of the business carried on by all or any one of them acting for all.


Features


Formation:

The partnership form of business organization is governed by the Indian Partnership Act, 1932.

It comes into existence through a legal agreement wherein the terms and conditions governing the relationship among the partners, sharing of profits and losses and the manner of conducting the business are specified.

It may be pointed out that the business must be lawful and run with the motive of profit.

Thus, two people coming together for charitable purposes will not constitute a partnership.


Liability:

The partners of a firm have unlimited liability. Personal assets may be used for repaying debts in case the business assets are insufficient.

Further, the partners are jointly and individually liable for payment of debts. Jointly, all the partners are responsible for the debts and they contribute in proportion to their share in business and as such are liable to that extent.

Individually too, each partner can be held responsible repaying the debts of the business.

However, such a partner can later recover from other partners an amount of money equivalent to the shares in liability defined as per the partnership agreement.


Risk bearing:

The partners bear the risks involved in running a business as a team. The reward comes in the form of profits which are shared by the partners in an agreed ratio.

However, they also share losses in the same ratio in the event of the firm incurring losses.


Decision making and control:

The partners share amongst themselves the responsibility of decision making and control of day to day activities.

Decisions are generally taken with mutual consent. Thus, the activities of a partnership firm are managed through the joint efforts of all the partners.


Continuity:

Partnership is characterized by lack of continuity of business since the death, retirement, insolvency or insanity of any partner can bring an end to the business.

However, the remaining partners may if they so desire continue the business on the basis of a new agreement.


Number of Partners:

The minimum number of partners needed to start a partnership firm is two.

According to section 464 of the Companies Act 2013, maximum number of partners in a partnership firm can be 100, subject to the number prescribed by the government.

As per Rule 10 of The Companies (miscellaneous) Rules 2014, at present the maximum number of members can be 50.


Mutual agency:

The definition of partnership highlights the fact that it is a business carried on by all or any one of the partners acting for all.

In other words, every partner is both an agent and a principal. He is an agent of other partners as he represents them and thereby binds them through his acts.

He is a principal as he too can be bound by the acts of other partners.


Types of Partners


Active partner

An active partner is one who contributes capital, participates in the management of the firm, shares its profits and losses, and is liable to an unlimited extent to the creditors of the firm.

These partners take actual part in carrying out business of the firm on behalf of other partners.


Sleeping or dormant partner

Partners who do not take part in the day to day activities of the business are called sleeping partners. A sleeping partner, however, contributes capital to the firm, shares its profits and losses, and has unlimited liability.



Secret partner

A secret partner is one whose association with the firm is unknown to the general public. Other than this distinct feature, in all other aspects he is like the rest of the partners.

He contributes to the capital of the firm, takes part in the management, shares its profits and losses, and has unlimited liability towards the creditors.


Nominal partner

A nominal partner is one who allows the use of his/her name by a firm, but does not contribute to its capital. He/she does not take active part in managing the firm, does not share its profit or losses but is liable, like other partners, to the third parties, for the repayments of the firms debts.


Partner by estoppel

A person is considered a partner by estoppel if, through his/her own initiative, conduct or behavior, he/she gives an impression to others that he/she is a partner of the firm.

Such partners are held liable for the debts of the firm because in the eyes of the third party they are considered partners, even though they do not contribute capital or take part in its management.


Partner by holding out

A partner by holding out is a person who though is not a partner in a firm but knowingly allows himself/herself to be represented as a partner in a firm.

Such a person becomes liable to outside creditors for repayment of any debts which have been extended to the firm on the basis of such representation.

In case he is not really a partner and wants to save himself from such a liability, he should immediately issue a denial, clarifying his position that he is not a partner in the firm. If he does not do so, he will be responsible to the third party for any such debts.


Minor as a Partner

Partnership is based on legal contract between two persons who agree to share the profits or losses of a business carried on by them.

As such a minor is incompetent to enter into a valid contract with others; he cannot become a partner in any firm.

However, a minor can be admitted to the benefits of a partnership firm with the mutual consent of all other partners.

In such cases, his liability will be limited to the extent of the capital contributed by him and in the firm.

He will not be eligible to take an active part in the management of the firm. Thus, a minor can share only the profits and cannot be asked to bear the losses.

However, he can if he wishes, inspect the accounts of the firm. The status of minor changes when he attains majority.

In fact, on attaining majority, the minor has to decide whether he would like to become a partner in the firm.

He has to give a public notice of his decision within six months of attaining majority.

If he fails to do so, within the stipulated time, he will be treated as a full-fledged partner and will become liable to the debts of the firm to an unlimited extent, in the same way as other active partners are.


Types of Partnerships

Partnerships can be classified on the basis of two factors, viz., duration and liability.

On the basis of duration, there can be two types of partnerships: partnership at will and particular partnership.

On the basis of liability, the two types of partnership include: one with limited liability and the other one with unlimited liability.

Classification on the basis of duration:


Partnership at will

This type of partnership exists at the will of the partners. It can continue as long as the partners want and is terminated when any partner gives a notice of withdrawal from partnership to the firm.

Particular partnership:

Partner-ship formed for the accomplishment of a particular project say construction of a building or an activity to be carried on for a specified time period is called particular partnership. It dissolves automatically when the purpose for which it was formed is fulfilled or when the time duration expires.


On the basis of liability


(I) General Partnership:

In general partnership, the liability of partners is unlimited and joint. The partners enjoy the right to participate in the management of the firm and their acts are binding on each other as well as on the firm. Registration of the firm is optional. The existence of the firm is affected by the death, lunacy, insolvency or retirement of the partners.


(ii) Limited Partnership:

In limited partnership, the liability of at least one partner is unlimited whereas the rest may have limited liability. Such a partnership does not get terminated with the death, lunacy or insolvency of the limited partners. The limited partners do not enjoy the right of management and their acts do not bind the firm or the other partners. Registration of such partnership is compulsory.


Partnership Deed


A partnership is a voluntary association of people who come together for achieving common objectives. In order to enter into partnership, a clear agreement with respect to the terms, conditions and all aspects concerning the partners is essential so that there is no misunderstanding later among the partners.

Such an agreement can be oral or written. Even though it is not essential to have a written agreement, it is advisable to have a written agreement as it constitutes an evidence of the conditions agreed upon.

The written agreement which specifies the terms and conditions that govern the partnership is called the partnership deed.


The partnership deed generally includes the following aspects:

  • Name of firm

  • Nature of business and location of business

  • Duration of business

  • Investment made by each partner

  • Distribution of profits and losses

  • Duties and obligations of the partners

  • Salaries and withdrawals of the partners

  • Terms governing admission, retirement and expulsion of a partner

  • Interest on capital and interest on drawings

  • Procedure for dissolution of the firm

  • Preparation of accounts and their auditing

  • Method of solving disputes


Registration

Registration of a partnership firm means the entering of the firms name, along with the relevant prescribed particulars, in the Register of firms kept with the Registrar of Firms.

It provides conclusive proof of the existence of a partnership firm.

It is optional for a partnership firm to get registered. In case a firm does not get registered, it is deprived of many benefits. The consequences of non-registration of a firm are as follows:

A partner of an unregistered firm cannot file a suit against the firm or other partners, The firm cannot file a suit against third parties, and The firm cannot file a case against the partners.

In view of these consequences, it is therefore advisable to get the firm registered.

According to the Indian Partnership Act 1932, the partners may get the firm registered with the Registrar of firms of the state in which the firm is situated.

The registration can be at the time of formation or at any time during its existence.


The procedure for getting a firm registered is as follows:

Submission of application in the prescribed form to the Registrar of firms. The application should contain the following particulars:

  • Name of the firm

  • Location of the firm

  • Names of other places where the firm carries on business

  • The date when each partner joined the firm

  • Names and addresses of the partners Duration of partnership

  • This application should be signed by all the partners.

Deposit of required fees with the Registrar of Firms.

The Registrar after approval will make an entry in the register of firms and will subsequently issue a certificate of registration.


Cooperative Society

The word cooperative means working together and with others for a common purpose.

The cooperative society is a voluntary association of persons, who join together with the motive of welfare of the members.

They are driven by the need to protect their economic interests in the face of possible exploitation at the hands of middlemen obsessed with the desire to earn greater profits.

The cooperative society is compulsorily required to be registered under the Cooperative Societies Act 1912.

The process of setting up a cooperative society is simple enough and at the most what is required is the consent of at least ten adult persons to form a society.

The capital of a society is raised from its members through issue of shares. The society acquires a distinct legal identity after its registration.


Features


(I) Voluntary membership:

The membership of a cooperative society is voluntary. A person is free to join a cooperative society, and can also leave anytime as per his desire.

There cannot be any compulsion for him to join or quit a society. Although procedurally a member is required to serve a notice before leaving the society, there is no compulsion to remain a member.

Membership is open to all, irrespective of their religion, caste, and gender.


(ii) Legal status:

Registration of a cooperative society is compulsory. This accords a separate identity to the society which is distinct from its members.

The society can enter into contracts and hold property in its name, sue and be sued by others.

As a result of being a separate legal entity, it is not affected by the entry or exit of its members.


(iii) Limited liability:

The liability of the members of a cooperative society is limited to the extent of the amount contributed by them as capital. This defines the maximum risk that a member can be asked to bear.


(iv) Control:

In a cooperative society, the power to take decisions lies in the hands of an elected managing committee.

The right to vote gives the members a chance to choose the members who will constitute the managing committee and this lends the cooperative society a democratic character.


(v) Service motive:

The cooperative society through its purpose lays emphasis on the values of mutual help and welfare.

Hence, the motive of service dominates its working. If any surplus is generated as a result of its operations, it is distributed amongst the members as dividend in conformity with the bye-laws of the society.


Types of Cooperative Societies


Consumers cooperative societies:

The consumer cooperative societies are formed to protect the interests of consumers. The members comprise of consumers desirous of obtaining good quality products at reasonable prices.

The society aims at eliminating middlemen to achieve economy in operations. It purchases goods in bulk directly from the wholesalers and sells goods to the members, thereby eliminating the middlemen.

Profits, if any, are distributed on the basis of either their capital contributions to the society or purchases made by individual members.


Producers cooperative societies:

These societies are set up to protect the interest of small producers. The members comprise of producers desirous of procuring inputs for production of goods to meet the demands of consumers.

The society aims to fight against the big capitalists and enhance the bargaining power of the small producers.

It supplies raw materials, equipment and other inputs to the members and also buys their output for sale.

Profits among the members are generally distributed on the basis of their contributions to the total pool of goods produced or sold by the society.


Marketing cooperative societies:

Such societies are established to help small producers in selling their products. The members consist of producers who wish to obtain reasonable prices for their output.

The society aims to eliminate middlemen and improve competitive position of its members by securing a favorable market for the products.

It pools the output of individual members and performs marketing functions like transportation, warehousing, packaging, etc., to sell the output at the best possible price. Profits are distributed according to each members contribution to the pool of output.


Farmers cooperative societies:

These societies are established to protect the interests of farmers by providing better inputs at a reasonable cost.

The members comprise of farmers who wish to jointly take up farming activities.

The aim is to gain the benefits of large scale farming and increase the productivity.

Such societies provide better quality seeds, fertilizers, machinery and other modern techniques for use in the cultivation of crops.

This helps not only in improving the yield and returns to the farmers, but also solves the problems associated with the farming on fragmented land holdings.


Credit cooperative societies:

Credit cooperative societies are established for providing easy credit on reasonable terms to the members.

The members comprise of persons who seek financial help in the form of loans. The aim of such societies is to protect the members from the exploitation of lenders who charge high rates of interest on loans.

Such societies provide loans to members out of the amounts collected as capital and deposits from the members and charge low rates of interest.


Cooperative housing societies:

Cooperative housing societies are established to help people with limited income to construct houses at reasonable costs.

The members of these societies consist of people who are desirous of procuring residential accommodation at lower costs.

The aim is to solve the housing problems of the members by constructing houses and giving the option of paying in installments.

These societies construct flats or provide plots to members on which the members themselves can construct the houses as per their choice.


Joint Stock Company

A company is an association of persons formed for carrying out business activities and has a legal status independent of its members.

A company can be described as an artificial person having a separate legal entity, perpetual succession and a common seal.

The company form of organization is governed by The Companies Act, 2013. As per section 2(20) of Act 2013, a company means company incorporated under this Act or any other previous company law.

The shareholders are the owners of the company while the Board of Directors is the chief managing body elected by the shareholders.

Usually, the owners exercise an indirect control over the business. The capital of the company is divided into smaller parts called shares which can be transferred freely from one shareholder to another person.

Joint Stock Company is a voluntary association of individuals for profit, having a capital divided into transferable shares, the ownership of which is the condition of membership.


Features


Artificial person:

A company is a creation of law and exists independent of its members. Like natural persons, a company can own property, incur debts, borrow money, enter into contracts, sue and be sued but unlike them it cannot breathe, eat, run, and talk and so on. It is, therefore, called an artificial person.


Separate legal entity:

From the day of its incorporation, a company acquires an identity, distinct from its members.

Its assets and liabilities are separate from those of its owners. The law does not recognize the business and owners to be one and the same.


Formation:

The formation of a company is a time consuming, expensive and complicated process. It involves the preparation of several documents and compliance with several legal requirements before it can start functioning.

Incorporation of companies is compulsory under The Companies Act 2013 or any of the previous company law, as state earlier. Such companies which are incorporated under companies Act 1956 or any company law shall be included in the list of companies.


Perpetual succession:

A company being a creation of the law can be brought to an end only by law.

It will only cease to exist when a specific procedure for its closure, called winding up, is completed.

Members may come and members may go, but the company continues to exist. (v)Control:

The management and control of the affairs of the company is undertaken by the Board of Directors, which appoints the top management officials for running the business.

The directors hold a position of immense significance as they are directly accountable to the shareholders for the working of the company.

The shareholders, however, do not have the right to be involved in the day-to-day running of the business.


Liability:

The liability of the members is limited to the extent of the capital contributed by them in a company.

The creditors can use only the assets of the company to settle their claims since it is the company and not the members that owes the debt.

The members can be asked to contribute to the loss only to the extent of the unpaid amount of share held by them.


Common seal:

A company may or may not have a common seal. If a company has a common seal, it must be affixed to the documents such as agreements of a company.

If a company does not have a common seal then the person signing the document should be authorized by a boards resolutions.


Risk bearing:

The risk of losses in a company is borne by all the share holders. This is unlike the case of sole proprietorship or partnership firm where one or few persons respectively bear the losses.

In the face of financial difficulties, all shareholders in a company have to contribute to the debts to the extent of their shares in the company’s capital.

The risk of loss thus gets spread over a large number of shareholders.


Types of Companies


Private Company

A private company means a company which:

  1. Restricts the right of members to transfer its shares;

  2. has a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 200 members, excluding the present and past employees;

  3. Does not invite public to subscribe to its securities and

It is necessary for a private company to use the word private limited after its name.

If a private company contravenes any of the aforesaid provisions, it ceases to be a private company and loses all the exemptions and privileges to which it is entitled.


The following are some of the privileges of a private limited company as against a public limited company:

  • A private company can be formed by only two members whereas seven people are needed to form a public company.

There is no need to issue a prospectus as public is not invited to subscribe to the shares of a private company.

  • Allotment of shares can be done without receiving the minimum subscription. A private limited company can start business as soon as it receives the certificate of incorporation.

  • A private company needs to have only two directors as against the minimum of three directors in the case of a public company. However the maximum number of directors for both types of companies is fifteen.

  • A private company is not required to keep an index of members while the same is necessary in the case of a public company.


Public Company


A public company means a company which is not a private company. As per The Companies Act, a public company is one which:

  1. Has a minimum of 7 members and no limit on maximum members;

  2. Has no restriction on transfer securities; and

  3. Is not prohibited from inviting the public to subscribe to its securities.

However, a private company which is a subsidiary of a public company is also treated as a public company.


Selection Of Type Of Organisation


Sole Proprietorship


Merits


(I) Quick decision making:

A sole proprietor enjoys considerable degree of freedom in making business decisions.

Further the decision making is prompt because there is no need to consult others.

This may lead to timely capitalization of market opportunities as and when they arise.


(ii) Confidentiality of information:

Sole decision making authority enables the proprietor to keep all the information related to business operations confidential and maintain secrecy.

A sole trader is also not bound by law to publish firms accounts.


(iii) Direct incentive:

A sole proprietor directly reaps the benefits of his/her efforts as he/she is the sole recipient of all the profit.

The need to share profits does not arise as he/she is the single owner. This provides maximum incentive to the sole trader to work hard.


(iv) Sense of accomplishment:

There is a personal satisfaction involved in working for oneself. The knowledge that one is responsible for the success of the business not only contributes to self-satisfaction but also instills in the individual a sense of accomplishment and confidence in ones abilities.


(v) Ease of formation and closure:

An important merit of sole proprietorship is the possibility of entering into business with minimal legal formalities.

There is no separate law that governs sole proprietorship. As sole proprietorship is the least regulated form of business, it is easy to start and close the business as per the wish of the owner.


Limitations


(I) Limited resources:

Resources of a sole proprietor are limited to his/her personal savings and borrowings from others.

Banks and other lending institutions may hesitate to extend a long term loan to a sole proprietor.

Lack of resources is one of the major reasons why the size of the business rarely grows much and generally remains small.


(ii) Limited life of a business concern:


The sole proprietorship business is owned and controlled by one person, so death, insanity, imprisonment, physical ailment or bankruptcy of a proprietor affects the business and can lead to its closure.


(iii) Unlimited liability:

A major disadvantage of sole proprietorship is that the owner has unlimited liability. If the business fails, the creditors can recover their dues not merely from the business assets, but also from the personal assets of the proprietor.

A poor decision or an unfavorable circumstance can create serious financial burden on the owner. That is why a sole proprietor is less inclined to take risks in the form of innovation or expansion.


(iv) Limited managerial ability:

The owner has to assume the responsibility of varied managerial tasks such as purchasing, selling, financing, etc.

It is rare to find an individual who excels in all these areas. Thus decision making may not be balanced in all the cases.

Also, due to limited resources, sole proprietor may not be able to employ and retain talented and ambitious employees.


Hindi Undivided Family

Merits


Effective control:

The karta has absolute decision making power. This avoids conflicts among members as no one can interfere with his right to decide.

This also leads to prompt and flexible decision making.


Continued business existence:

The death of the karta will not affect the business as the next eldest member will then take up the position.

Hence, operations are not terminated and continuity of business is not threatened.


Limited liability of members:

The liability of all the co-parceners except the karta is limited to their share in the business, and consequently their risk is well-defined and precise.


Increased loyalty and cooperation:

Since the business is run by the members of a family, there is a greater sense of loyalty towards one other.

Pride in the growth of business is linked to the achievements of the family. This helps in securing better cooperation from all the members.


Limitation


Limited resources:

The joint Hindu family business faces the problem of limited capital as it depends mainly on ancestral property.

This limits the scope for expansion of business.


Unlimited liability of karta:

The karta is burdened not only with the responsibility of decision making and management of business, but also suffers from the disadvantage of having unlimited liability.

His personal property can be used to repay business debts.


Dominance of karta:

The karta individually manages the business which may at times not be acceptable to other members.

This may cause conflict amongst them and may even lead to break down of the family unit.


Limited managerial skills:

Since the karta cannot be an expert in all areas of management, the business may suffer as a result of his unwise decisions.

His inability to decide effectively may result into poor profits or even losses for the organization.


Partnership Firm


Merits


Ease of formation and closure:

A partnership firm can be formed easily by putting an agreement between the prospective partners into place whereby they agree to carry out the business of the firm and share risks.

There is no compulsion with respect to registration of the firm. Closure of the firm too is an easy task.


Balanced decision making:

The partners can oversee different functions according to their areas of expertise.

Because an individual is not forced to handle different activities, this not only reduces the burden of work but also leads to fewer errors in judgments.

As a consequence, decisions are likely to be more balanced.


More funds:

In a partnership, the capital is contributed by a number of partners. This makes it possible to raise larger amount of funds as compared to a sole proprietor and undertake additional operations when needed.


Sharing of risks:

The risks involved in running a partnership firm are shared by all the partners. This reduces the anxiety, burden and stress on individual partners.


Secrecy:

A partnership firm is not legally required to publish its accounts and submit its reports.

Hence it is able to maintain confidentiality of information relating to its operations.


Limitations


Unlimited liability:

Partners are liable to repay debts even from their personal resources in case the business assets are not sufficient to meet its debts.

The liability of partners is both joint and several which may prove to be a drawback for those partners who have greater personal wealth.

They will have to repay the entire debt in case the other partners are unable to do so.


Limited resources:

There is a restriction on the number of partners, and hence contribution in terms of capital investment is usually not sufficient to support large scale business operations. As a result, partnership firms face problems in expansion beyond a certain size.


Possibility of conflicts:

Partnership is run by a group of persons wherein decision making authority is shared. Difference in opinion on some issues may lead to disputes between partners. Further, decisions of one partner are binding on other partners.

Thus an unwise decision by someone may result in financial ruin for all others. In case a partner desires to leave the firm, this can result in termination of partnership as there is a restriction on transfer of ownership.


Lack of continuity:

Partnership comes to an end with the death, retirement, insolvency or lunacy of any partner. It may result in lack of continuity.

However, the remaining partners can enter into a fresh agreement and continue to run the business.


Lack of public confidence:

A partnership firm is not legally required to publish its financial reports or make other related information public.

It is, therefore, difficult for any member of the public to ascertain the true financial status of a partnership firm.

As a result, the confidence of the public in partnership firms is generally low.


Cooperative Society

Merits


Equality in voting status:

The principle of one man one vote governs the cooperative society. Irrespective of the amount of capital contribution by a member, each member is entitled to equal voting rights.


Limited liability:

The liability of members of a cooperative society is limited to the extent of their capital contribution. The personal assets of the members are, therefore, safe from being used to repay business debts.


Stable existence:

Death, bankruptcy or insanity of the members does not affect continuity of a cooperative society. A society, therefore, operates unaffected by any change in the membership.


Economy in operations:

The members generally offer honorary services to the society. As the focus is on elimination of middlemen, this helps in reducing costs. The customers or producers themselves are members of the society, and hence the risk of bad debts is lower.


Support from government:

The cooperative society exemplifies the idea of democracy and hence finds support from the Government in the form of low taxes, subsidies, and low interest rates on loans.


Ease of formation:

The cooperative society can be started with a minimum of ten members. The registration procedure is simple involving a few legal formalities. Its formation is governed by the provisions of Cooperative Societies Act 1912.


Limitations


Limited resources:

Resources of a cooperative society consist of capital contributions of the members with limited means.

The low rate of dividend offered on investment also acts as a deterrent in attracting membership or more capital from the members.


Inefficiency in management:

Cooperative societies are unable to attract and employ expert managers because of their inability to pay them high salaries.

The members who offer honorary services on a voluntary basis are generally not professionally equipped to handle the management functions effectively.


Lack of secrecy:

As a result of open discussions in the meetings of members as well as disclosure obligations as per the Societies Act (7), it is difficult to maintain secrecy about the operations of a cooperative society.


Government control:

In return of the privileges offered by the government, cooperative societies have to comply with several rules and regulations related to auditing of accounts, submission of accounts, etc.

Interference in the functioning of the cooperative organization through the control exercised by the state cooperative departments also negatively affects its freedom of operation.


Differences of opinion:

Internal quarrels arising as a result of contrary viewpoints may lead to difficulties in decision making.

Personal interests may start to dominate the welfare motive and the benefit of other members may take a backseat if personal gain is given preference by certain members.


Joint Stock Company

Merits


Limited liability:

The shareholders are liable to the extent of the amount unpaid on the shares held by them. Also, only the assets of the company can be used to settle the debts, leaving the owners personal property free from any charge. This reduces the degree of risk borne by an investor.


Transfer of interest:

The ease of transfer of ownership adds to the advantage of investing in a company as the share of a public limited company can be sold in the market and as such can be easily converted into cash in case the need arises.