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Sociology | Class 12 | Change and Development in Industrial Society

Images of industrial society

Marx, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim connected urbanisation and the decline of face-to-face interactions with industry. An intricate division of labour results from industrialization.

When people do not enjoy their work and view it as something they must do in order to survive, Marx referred to this situation as alienation. Even survival depends on whether there is any room for human labour in technology.

In some spheres, industrialization promotes greater equality. For instance, caste distinctions are no longer relevant in cyber cafes, trains, or buses.

Early sociologists viewed industrialization as both positive and negative, but by the middle of the 20th century, industrialization had come to be accepted as inevitable and beneficial due to the influence of modernization theory.

India's industrialization

India's industrialization experience is both very different from the western model and very similar in many ways. There isn't a single industrial capitalism model that applies to all nations, according to comparative analysis of various nations.

Cotton, jute, coal mines, and railroads were among India's first modern industries. The "commanding heights of the economy" were taken over by the government after independence. Defense, transportation and communication, power, mining, and other projects were included.

The government had exclusive access to some sectors under India's mixed economy policy, while the private sector was allowed to operate in others. But within that, the government made an effort to ensure that industries were dispersed across various regions through its licencing policy.

Through unique incentives and support, the government also made an effort to promote the small-scale industry.

Less than 10% of people work in agriculture in developed nations, and the majority are employed in the services, industry, and manufacturing sectors.

Nearly 60% of people worked in the primary sector (agriculture and mining) in developing nations like India, 17% in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction, and utilities), and 23% in the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financial services etc.)

formal or organised sector

All businesses that regularly employ ten people or more are considered to be part of the organised sector.

Companies have government registration, jobs have benefits and security, the hiring process is more open, and there are channels for complaints and redress.

Social implications of this small size of the organised sector:

  • First of all, it denotes that very few people have the opportunity to work for large corporations where they can interact with people from diverse backgrounds and locations. While urban environments do offer some correction to this—your city neighbours might be from a different country—most Indians still work in small-scale workplaces.

  • Second, very few Indians have access to well-paying, stable employment. Two-thirds of those who do do so for the government. This explains the appeal of government employment. The remainder are compelled to rely on their kids as they get older.

  • Third, because so few people belong to unions, a feature of the organised sector, they lack the experience of organising a group to fight for fair pay and secure working conditions. Although the government has laws to regulate the unorganised sector, in reality the employer or contractor controls the conditions there.

Globalisation, liberalisation and changes in Indian industry

However, the government has adopted a liberalisation strategy since the 1990s. Private businesses, particularly foreign businesses, are urged to invest in areas that were previously only open to the government, such as telecom, civil aviation, power, etc.

Industries can now be opened without a licence. Indian stores can now easily find foreign goods. Multinational corporations have acquired many Indian businesses as a result of liberalisation.

The "disinvestment" process, in which the government tries to sell its holdings in a number of public companies, is underway. Many government employees fear that they will lose their jobs as a result of disinvestment. In the first company to be privatised, Modern Foods, which was founded by the government to provide affordable, healthy bread, 60% of the workforce was compelled to retire within the first five years.


There are many different types of workplaces in India, ranging from large corporations with automated work environments to small home-based businesses.

Controlling employees and getting more work from them are the basic responsibilities of a manager.

There are primarily two methods for increasing employee output. One is to increase the hours worked. The other is to increase the volume produced in a specific amount of time.

Taylorism, also known as "scientific management"

  • Organization of the work is another method for boosting output.

  • In the 1890s, an American by the name of Frederick Winslow Taylor created a brand-new methodology that he called "Scientific Management."

  • Stopwatches were used to time the workers, who were required to meet a daily goal.

Assembly line production

  • The introduction of the assembly line further accelerated production. The conveyor belt's speed could be changed to control the rate of work.

  • Less people are employed as an industry becomes more automated, but they still must keep up with the machine's pace of operation.


Just-in-time production and outsourcing keep costs down for the business, but the employees are under a lot of stress because if the supplies are late, their production goals are delayed, and when they are, they must move quickly to keep up.

Working conditions

Conditions of coal miners' jobs

  • The Mines Act of 1952 outlines safety regulations, the maximum number of hours a person can be required to work per week, and the requirement to pay overtime for any additional hours worked.

  • Many contractors avoid taking responsibility for accidents and benefits by failing to keep proper records of their employees.

  • The company is required to fill in any open holes left behind after mining in a location has ended and return the area to its pre-mining state. They don't, though.

  • Due to flooding, fire, the collapse of roofs and walls, the release of gases, and ventilation issues, working conditions in underground mines are extremely hazardous.

  • Many workers experience breathing issues and illnesses like silicosis and tuberculosis. Overground mine employees risk injury from mine blasting, falling objects, and other hazards while working in hot sun and heavy rain.

As a result, when compared to other nations, India has a very high rate of mining accidents.

Home-based work

  • Working from home contributes significantly to the economy. This includes producing products like carpets, bidis, agarbattis, lace, zari or brocade, and many other similar items. Women and kids are the main workers in this field.

  • An agent delivers the raw materials and collects the finished item.

  • Depending on how many pieces they produce, home workers are paid on a piece-rate basis. Consider the bidding industry.


  • Workers do not report to work during a strike. Making the decision to call a strike is challenging because managers might try to use substitute labour.

  • Without pay, workers also struggle to support themselves.


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