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Sociology | Class 12 | Globalisation and Social Change


The relationship and connection between the local and the global (international) markets is known as globalisation. This chapter aims to explain what globalisation is, its various aspects, and the social repercussions they have.

Sociologists and social anthropologists cannot examine society as if it were a standalone entity. This has changed as space and time have contracted. Sociologists must take into account this global interconnectedness when studying villages, families, movements, child rearing practises, work and leisure, bureaucratic organisations, or castes.

Globalization has far-reaching effects. We are all affected, but in different ways. So, while it may mean new opportunities for some, it may also mean a loss of livelihood for others.

There are contrasting opinions about how globalisation will affect society. Some people think it's important to announce a better world. Others worry that different groups of people will be significantly affected by globalisation in very different ways. They contend that while many in the wealthier segment may benefit, the situation of a sizable portion of the already marginalised population deteriorates.

Understanding Globalisation

The term "globalisation" describes the expanding social and economic ties that exist between individuals, communities, and nations of the world.

It would be incorrect to claim that economic forces alone are the sole cause of globalisation, despite the fact that they are an essential component.

It has advanced primarily due to the advancement of information and communication technologies, which have accelerated the pace and scope of human interaction worldwide.

Different Dimensions of Globalisation

Economic Dimension

Policy of liberalisation

  • Globalisation involves a stretching of social and economic relationships throughout the world. Certain economic policies encourage this stretching. In India, this process is referred to broadly as liberalisation.

  • The term "liberalisation" describes a number of political choices made by the Indian government since 1991 to expose the Indian economy to the global market. This signalled a departure from the government's earlier stated intention to exert more control over the economy.

  • As the economy became more liberalised, trade and financial regulations in India were gradually relaxed. These actions are referred to as economic reforms as well.

  • Obtaining loans from international organisations like the International Monetary Fund was another step in the liberalisation process (IMF). These loans are provided under specific terms. The government pledges to pursue specific economic measures that include a structural adjustment policy.

The transnational corporations

  • Transnational corporations (TNCs) play a significant role among the many economic factors driving globalisation. TNCs are businesses that manufacture products or market services across borders.

  • These companies could be quite small, with one or two factories located outside of the nation where they are headquartered. They might also be enormous international companies with operations all over the world.

  • Companies like Coca-Cola, General Motors, Colgate-Palmolive, Kodak, Mitsubishi, and many other large MNCs are well-known on a global scale.

The digital economy

  • Another element supporting economic globalisation is the so-called "electronic economy." International fund transfers are simple for banks, businesses, fund managers, and individual investors.

  • However, the new ability to move "electronic money" instantly comes with significant risks.

  • In India, this is frequently brought up in conversation in relation to both rising stock markets and unexpected dips brought on by foreign investors who buy stocks, sell them for a profit, and then buy more.

Knowledge economy or the Weightless Economy

  • The foundation of the global economy is no longer primarily industrial or agricultural, as it was in earlier eras.

  • The weightless economy is one where information serves as the foundation for goods, as is the case with internet-based services, media and entertainment products, and computer software.

Globalisation of finance

  • Globally integrated financial markets conduct transactions worth billions of dollars in electronic circuits in a matter of seconds.

  • The capital and security markets are open for trading around-the-clock. The major hubs for financial trading are places like New York, Tokyo, and London.

  • Mumbai is regarded as India's financial hub within the nation.

Global Communications

  • The development and improvement of technology and communication have led to numerous revolutions.

  • Multiple connections to the outside world are present in some homes and offices, including telephones, cell phones, fax machines, digital and cable television, electronic mail, and the internet.

  • With the aid of satellite technology, two people in Banglore and New York who are geographically separated from one another are able to communicate verbally as well as send each other documents and images.

Globalisation and international division of labours

  • It has developed as a result of globalisation, in which manufacturing and employment are dispersed across numerous nations.

  • MNCs set up shop wherever there is a strong infrastructure, inexpensive labour, and resources, which causes frequent relocation. As a result, the labour force felt uneasy.

Globalisation And Employment

  • Prior to globalisation (1990s), there were different employment conditions.

  • Globalization and the IT revolution have created new career opportunities for urban middle-class youth.

  • Today, there are numerous jobs (call centres, BPOs) available after graduation.

  • Job opportunities significantly expanded.

Political Dimension

  • Globalization was accelerated in many ways by a significant political shift, namely the fall of the former socialist world. Additionally, they provided a particular economic and political perspective on the globalization-supporting economic policies.

  • The expansion of global and regional structures for political cooperation is a significant political development that goes hand in hand with globalisation. Examples include the South Asian Association for Regional Corporation (SAARC), the European Union (EU), and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN).

  • The emergence of international governmental organisations (IGOs) and international non-governmental organisations has been the other political factor (INGOs). A body created by participating governments and tasked with controlling or monitoring a specific area of activity with a global scope is known as an intergovernmental organisation.

Cultural Dimension

Significant cultural change over the past ten years has raised concerns about the potential extinction of our native cultures.

The idea that all cultures will eventually converge and become homogenous is one of the main arguments. Others contend that culture is beginning to become more glocalized. The term "glocalization" describes the blending of the local and the global.

It is a tactic that is frequently used by foreign businesses to deal with regional traditions and increase their marketability.

Even McDonald's sells only chicken and vegetarian options in India rather than its well-known beef options. For the Navaratri festival, McDonald's becomes a vegetarian restaurant.

Culture of consumption

  • Prior to 1990 (the year of globalisation), cities grew where industries did as well.

  • People have migrated to cities because of infrastructure changes that have occurred whenever there have been industries, including changes in the food, clothing, art, and music industries as well as the tourism industry.

  • The development of shopping centres, multiplexes, and amusement parks all increase a city's allure.

  • No longer is shopping done out of necessity.

  • Money-related aspects have changed.

Gender and Culture

  • Then, globalisation can be used as a shield for unfair practises against women.

  • The democratic tradition and culture that India has managed to preserve and develop gives us the chance to define culture in a way that is more inclusive and democratic.

Corporate culture

  • Every business or multinational corporation has a distinct culture because it wants to stand out.

  • Every business has a unique strategy for taking care of its employees.

  • This is done to keep the workers content and at ease, which also serves as a motivator to maintain their level of productivity.

  • This incentive is necessary because there is competition among the workforce, and it is an effort to boost productivity.

  • Consider taking your employees to a movie, holiday party, or the Diwali mela.

  • Each business uses its own methods for marketing and sales.

  • There are a few professions that teachers, doctors, and other people have followed for a long time.

  • Many new professions have now emerged as a result of globalisation; people can now find work in industries like fashion design, banking, art, dance, diet, and theatre.

  • Professionals earn more money, so they are subject to a greater degree of stress (good money but a lot of work).


  • This is a result of competition, as many goods are readily available and less expensive either inside or outside of India.

  • The threat to these indigenous crafts has spread since the advent of globalisation.

Knowledge system

  • India is the country of origin for many food products, including turmeric and sandalwood, as well as many health products like tulsi and haldi.

  • These items have all been marketed as being from India.

  • It must be carefully avoided that other MNCs advertise these products as their own. There is a need to protect the foundation of its indigenous knowledge system in light of recent attempts by some MNCs to patent the use of Tulsi, Haldi, Rudraksha, and Basmati rice.

  • Yoga is a widely used knowledge system worldwide.

Globalisation and India

The Early years

Even two thousand years ago, the world was not isolated from India.

Our history textbooks have described the well-known Silk Route, which connected ancient India with the great civilizations of China, Persia, Egypt, and Rome. We also know that throughout India's long history, people from various places have come here and settled down, sometimes as traders, sometimes as conquerors, and sometimes as migrants looking for new lands.

Global connection and colonialism

The system that supported colonialism needed fresh sources of money, raw materials, energy, markets, and a worldwide network. Large-scale migration or human movement is frequently cited as a distinguishing characteristic of modern globalisation. However, the migration of Europeans who settled in the Americas and Australia may have been the largest movement of people.

Independent India and globalisation

India after independence kept a global perspective. This was in many ways passed down from the Indian nationalist movement. This vision heavily emphasised commitment to global liberation struggles and solidarity with people from all over the world.

Since independence, trade in goods, technologies, and raw materials has played a significant role in development.


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