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The Ghadar Movement

History and Background

It was an international political movement started in the early twentieth century by emigrant Indians with the goal of overthrowing British authority in India.

The movement began as a small group of Punjabi Indians living and working on the West Coast of the United States and Canada, but it quickly grew to include India and its Indian diasporic communities all over the world.

The movement was officially founded on July 15, 1913 in Astoria, Oregon.

World War I

Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914, some Ghadar party members returned to Punjab in order to foment an armed revolt for Indian independence.

Arms were smuggled in India by the Ghadarites, to incite the Indian troops to rise against the British.

The Ghadar Mutiny

After the completion of the Lahore Conspiracy Case trial, this unsuccessful insurrection was termed the Ghadar Mutiny, and 42 mutineers were hanged.

Between 1914 and 1917, Ghadarites engaged in secret anti-colonial activities, termed the Hindu–German Conspiracy, with the support of Germany and Ottoman Turkey, culminating in a dramatic trial in San Francisco in 1917.

It had branches in several countries. Apart from America and Canada, this organised its branches in Mexico, Japan, Philippines. Malaya, Singapore, Thailand, Indo-China etc.

Funding of the Movement

Lala Hardayal, the party's organiser in the United States, published a periodical called Ghadar in several languages, and millions of dollars were raised and contributed to paying for their (Ghadarities) expenditures.

Several people donated their life savings and sold important possessions such as jewellery, real estate, and land. The Charities sent communications to Indian services and troops in a variety of locations, urging them to revolt at a suitable time.

On February 21, 1915, this party planned to launch a violent struggle from Punjab.

The Movement's Decline

Unfortunately, the British authorities learned of these plans and acted quickly. The regiments of the insurrection were disbanded, and the leaders were imprisoned or hanged. Those who value liberty, on the other hand, are unafraid of all of these things.

Under the command of Jamadar Chisti Khan and Subedar Dundey Khan, 700 meres of the 5th Light Infantry revolted in Singapore, inspired by the Ghadar Party. They, too, failed. 37 of these rebels are claimed to have been publicly executed, while 41 were sentenced to life in prison.

Sohan Singh Bakhana was the founding president of the Ghadar Party and was a leader in the Ghadar Conspiracy in 1915.

Personalities Involved

Barkatullah (active in Japan and Afghanistan), Baja Mahendra Pratap (active in Germany and Afghanistan), Jatin Mukherjee (popularly known as Bagha Jatin), Ras Behari Bose, Lala Hardayal, Madam, and other prominent Indians carried out revolutionary activities and anti-British propaganda in various countries.

They fantasised about a liberated India. They left an indelible mark on the hearts of all Indians.


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