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Bioterrorism is related to the military use of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons. Biological agent attacks are among the most insidious and cause the most terror. Attacks may go undetected for an extended period of time, potentially exposing a large number of people who are unaware of the hazard.

Bioterrorism encompasses a wide range of problems, from catastrophic terrorism with mass victims to microevents that use low-tech but cause civic unrest, disruption, disease, disability, and death. The long-ignored and rejected threat of bioterrorism has grown in recent years.

The Problem

Bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, biological poisons, and fungi can all be used to create biological weapons. When combined with a delivery method, such as a missile or aerosol device, these agents can be used as biological weapons. The bacteria that produces anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, is one of the most likely agents to be utilised in a biological strike. The most lethal bioterrorism scenario involves pathogen dispersal by air across a large population area. It poses a significant risk since small amounts of biotic agents can be easily hidden, transported, and released into vulnerable populations. It has the potential to impact and expose military and civilian susceptibilities to biological weapons, as well as the complexity of providing adequate protections. Tropical agricultural viruses or pests can be employed as anticrop agents to undermine global food security. Experts in bioweapons say that bioterrorists now lack the biotechnological potential to create super diseases or super pests.

Is there a defence mechanism against it?

The European Union (EU), Russia, and China are collaborating to combat bioterrorism and biowarfare. The goal is to make it more difficult for terrorists to access resources for developing biological weapons.

Among these initiatives should be:

Intelligence Rapid Detection and Sharing

Global intelligence agencies should collaborate and share credible information. Combining human resources, laboratory resources, and information oversight in unique, legal, and satisfying methods that enable rapid detection and categorization of dangers. Rapid detection and surveillance are critical for an effective response to a bioterrorism attack.

Pathogen Analysis

Rapid, consistent procedures for detecting a wide spectrum of infections employed as biological weapons in a measured manner. Pathogens are common in the environment and can make detection more difficult.

Strengthening the Convention on Biological and Toxin Weapons

The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) of 1972 forbids signatory countries from developing, producing, stockpiling, or otherwise acquiring or retaining microbial or other biological agents or toxins, regardless of origin or method of production, in types and quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, or other peaceful purposes. Weapons, equipment, or delivery systems designed to use such substances or toxins for hostile or armed conflict goals. However, there is no exact authentication technique that can ensure BTWC compliance. As a result, efforts must be taken to strengthen the BTWC so that it can aid in the discovery and successful prevention of biological weapons programmes. In 2015, India ratified and vowed to uphold its duties.

Biodefense Systems

Upgrading and building biodefense systems in large urban areas to combat devastating disease outbreaks caused by bioterrorism. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union established many biodefense systems throughout the country. Creating and storing vaccines and antimicrobial treatments to protect humans from infections caused by biological weapons. First responders are being trained on how to deal with a biological weapons assault.

It involves improving diagnostic laboratory and epidemiology capabilities.


The studies undertaken to determine the actual effectiveness of counter-bioterrorism measures are insufficient and should be revised. It is critical that focused and scientific efforts are made to study the effectiveness of counter-bioterrorism measures. It should be noted that the deployment of specific counter-bioterrorism methods may have implications for human rights, institutional liberties, fundamental democratic ideals, and the Rule of Law.

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