The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a group of nuclear supplier countries that seeks to contribute to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons through the implementation of two sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports, Established in 1975.
The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a group of 48 states that have voluntarily agreed to coordinate their export controls to non-nuclear-weapon states. The NSG regulates the export of civilian nuclear material, nuclear equipment, and nuclear-related technologies. The NSG seeks to prevent commercial and peaceful nuclear exports from being utilised to produce nuclear weapons. NSG members are required to renounce nuclear trade with nations that do not submit to confidence-building international procedures and inspections in order to ensure that their nuclear imports are not used to manufacture weapons.
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom.
The nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), which was negotiated in 1968, provided non-nuclear-weapon states access to nuclear materials and technology for purely peaceful uses.
Several NPT nuclear supplier states wanted to establish the conditions for sharing certain equipment and materials with non-nuclear-weapon states, recognising that peaceful nuclear activities could be developed into weapons programmes. In 1971, these supplier governments established the Zangger Committee in order to require non-NPT states to implement International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards prior to importing specified commodities that may be used to develop nuclear weapons; this list is known as the "Trigger List."
India's explosion of a nuclear device in 1974 reaffirmed the fact that nuclear materials and technologies acquired under the guise of peaceful purposes could be diverted to build weapons. Several Zangger Committee members, in response to India's action, founded the NSG to further regulate nuclear-related exports.
Membership and India's bid
In recent years, India's efforts to join the NSG have advanced. Although countries such as the United States have indicated support for India's membership in the NSG in 2010, the group remains divided, in part because India does not meet a basic condition for membership as a non-state party to the NPT.
The United States and India campaigned for acceptance of India's membership application at the 2016 NSG summit. All of the participating states, except for China, support allowing India to join the NSG without signing the NPT. China emphasised that in addition to India, several non-NPT governments had expressed interest in joining the NSG; hence, India should not receive an exclusive exemption. As China's ambassador to Vienna, Shi Zhongjun, stated in June 2016, "NPT membership is one of the preconditions for consideration of NSG membership."
India's credential as a responsible actor
India has demonstrated commitment to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards over the years. It has voluntarily taken steps to comply with NPT and NSG requirements. Following the Indo-U.S. civil nuclear agreement of 2006, the United States vigorously advocated for an exception for India, citing the nation's flawless track record.
Why India is keen on Joining?
According to analysts, joining the NSG is motivated primarily by pride and a desire to be taken seriously by some of the world's most powerful nations.
Since 1998, when its nuclear tests prompted international technical bans and export restrictions, India has been eager to achieve legitimacy as a nuclear state.
Joining the NSG will provide India with improved access to low-cost, clean nuclear energy, which is critical to its economic growth.
It will allow India to minimise emissions and air pollution caused by coal-fired power facilities.
NSG membership would place India on a more solid platform to offer the notion of plutonium swap for its thorium programme, which has been in the works for some time.
Early implementation of thorium technology would provide India with significant energy sufficiency and security.
The nuclear countries were convinced that the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) alone would not prevent nuclear weapons from spreading. As a result, NSG was founded in 1974. The current NSG standards specify that a non-NPT state cannot join the club, which keeps India out.
NSG has become the premier international nuclear export control mechanism for the past decades. The volume of nuclear trade and the number of entities participating in it are growing at a rapid rate, and for the NSG to successfully oversee the larger trade volume, it must function diligently to assure the proper transfer of nuclear equipment and technology.