According to FAO “Organic agriculture is a unique production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity, and this is accomplished by using on-farm agronomic, biological and mechanical methods in exclusion of all synthetic off-farm inputs”
Lord Northbourne is credited with coining the phrase "organic farming."
The phrase is derived from his notion of "the farm as an organism," which he elaborates on in his book "Look to the Land" (1940)
In recent years, there has been a growing awareness of the detrimental effects of chemical-based fertilizers and pesticides on human health. Conventional agriculture mainly depends on chemical fertilizers and hazardous pesticides, among other things, which enter the food chain, contaminate water supplies, harm cattle, deplete the soil, and disrupt natural ecosystems.
Efforts to create eco-friendly technologies are critical for long-term growth, and organic farming is one such eco-friendly technology. In a nutshell, organic agriculture is a farming method that restores, maintains, and improves the ecological equilibrium.
Organically farmed food is becoming more popular as a means of improving food safety across the globe.
Pros and Cons
Organic agriculture enables farmers to replace more expensive agricultural inputs (such as HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides) with locally produced organic inputs that are less expensive and hence yield a higher rate of return on investment.
Organic agriculture also produces revenue from exports, as demand for organic crops continues to increase.
Organically cultivated food has a higher nutritional content than food grown chemically, providing us with healthier nourishment.
Due to the fact that organic farming involves more labor than conventional farming, India will find organic farming appealing. As it will enable employment generation.
Finally, the food is pesticide-free and grown sustainably. Popularising organic farming requires awareness and willingness on the part of farmers to adapt to new technology.
Apart from a proper agricultural policy to support organic farming, main challenges include insufficient infrastructure and the difficulty of marketing the products.
Organic farming has been reported to provide lower yields than conventional agricultural production in the early years. As a result, small and marginal farmers may struggle to adapt to large-scale agriculture.
Additionally, organic vegetables may have more blemish and a shorter shelf life than conventionally grown produce.
Additionally, organic farming has a very restricted selection of off-season crops. It is good for season produce. as mentioned it maintains harmony with climatic conditions rather than manipulating them to fit to desired outcomes.
Nonetheless, organic farming contributes to agriculture's long-term sustainability, and India clearly has a competitive edge in manufacturing organic goods for both local and international markets.
Organic farming interacts with nature rather than working against it. This entails adopting strategies to create excellent agricultural yields without damaging the natural environment or the people who live and work in it. Without the use of artificial fertilizers, pesticides, or herbicides, the organic farmer grows vegetables, fruit, cereal crops, or rear livestock. It is a kind of agriculture that provides customers with fresh, flavorful, and safe food while maintaining natural life cycle processes.
Along with the health advantages for customers, organic goods provide critical environmental benefits. Organic farming preserves biodiversity and helps the environment by reducing pollution in the air, water, and soil.