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Nationally Determined Contributions


Countries lay out their plans for reducing the emissions of the greenhouse gases that cause global warming and for dealing with the consequences of the same. The plans lay out a strategy for achieving the goals, as well as elaborate systems for tracking and verifying progress. To implement the plans, NDCs should also include a financing strategy. They were agreed upon in the COP-21 Paris Climate Agreement.

Every five years, countries are required by the Paris agreement to revise their NDCs. Glasgow Climate Pact called on all countries to revisit and strengthen their NDCs in 2022 because of the large gap between the emissions cuts needed to limit global warming to 1.5°C and the emissions reductions currently planned. It is expected that each new set of updates will increase the level of ambition by increasing emissions reductions and expanding adaptation measures. Every being on this planet needs the NDCs to ensure a livable future for all of us.

Based on solid research, they aid countries in making the transition to more environmentally friendly and long-term forms of development. There is an opportunity to rethink the way society produces and consumes in light of these shifts. Women, youth, and indigenous communities could all benefit from these programmes, which promote social inclusion. National development plans (NDPs) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are now linked in some countries.

The Case of India

Developing countries like India are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change because of the wide range of climate variability they experience. Because of its large population, reliance on agriculture, coastal expanses, and the Himalayan region and islands, India are uniquely vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Implications for economic and social development must be taken into consideration when formulating policy, especially when eliminating poverty is a top priority.

Given a democratic polity's development agenda, the infrastructure deficit represented by various indicators, the pressures of urbanisation and industrialization, and the imperative of sustainable growth, India faces a formidable and complex challenge in balancing economic progress, social development, and, most importantly, a sustainable future for its citizens.

India’s INDC centres around the country’s policies and programmes for:

  • Sustainable Lifestyles - To put forward and further propagate a healthy and sustainable way of living based on traditions and values of conservation and moderation.

  • Cleaner Economic Development - To adopt a climate-friendly and a cleaner path than the one followed hitherto by others at corresponding level of economic development.

  • Reducing Emission intensity of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - To reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 per cent by 2030 from the 2005 level.

  • Increasing the Share of Non-Fossil Fuel Based Electricity - To achieve about 40 per cent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030 with the help of the transfer of technology and low-cost international finance including from the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

  • Enhancing Carbon Sink (Forests) - To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.

  • Adaptation - To better adapt to climate change by enhancing investments in development programmes in sectors vulnerable to climate change, particularly agriculture, water resources, the Himalayan region, coastal regions, and health and disaster management.

  • Mobilising Finance - To mobilize domestic and new & additional funds from developed countries to implement the above mitigation and adaptation actions in view of the resource required and the resource gap.

  • Technology Transfer and Capacity Building - To build capacities, create domestic framework and international architecture for quick diffusion of cutting edge climate technology in India and for joint collaborative R&D for such future technologies.

COP-26( Glasgow)


  • Take Non Fossil energy capacity to 500GW by 2030.

  • Net Zero by 2070, Net zero means all Man-made GHG emissions must be removed from the atmosphere through absorption in processes like photosynthesis or physical removal.

  • Meet 50% of energy requirements from renewables by 2030.

  • Reduce total projected carbon emissions by 1 billion tonnes from now to 2030.

  • Reduce the economy’s carbon intensity to less than 45% by 2030.


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